HIST 122 Lecture Notes - Seed Drill, Flying Shuttle, Luddite

6 views6 pages
Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
History
Course
HIST 122
Professor
Week 1: Industrial Revolution 08/01/2013 16:31:00
Defining the Industrial Revolution
What it was not:
Not the beginning of industrialization
The history of industrialization is as old as humanity
Not the beginning of innovation
Not the beginning of economic growth
Rather a change in the degree of change
A fundamental discontinuity
Timeframe
Mid-late 18th Century to early-mid 19th Century
Some historians talk about a second Industrial Revolution, which some
have written about in the ‘70s.
Characterized by the beginnings of fossil fuel, rapid production of
weapons
Defining the process
Series of major technological innovations
New modes of transportation: catalyst for globalization
A factory-based economy
Accelerated structural change in technology, economy, and society.
Revolutionized the economy of the West and eventually the rest of the
world
Inventions and innovations
(1) Advances in broad fronts:
Iron smelting, cotton, sources of power
Textile, metallurgy, mining, transport, agriculture, and power production
What are the implications of the changes?
One change in an industry will change the web of resources as it
creates needs for other goods and services.
(2) Two clusters of inventions:
(a) before 1733: Newcomen engine, flying shuttle
(b) after 1768: Jenny, water frame, Watt’s engine, seed drill, etc.
(3) Other inventions:
Chemicals: alkalis and chlorine
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Machine making tools
Paper industry: paper was finally produced with a new method which
allowed it to be made flat on both sides.
Gas lighting: changed the hours by which people roamed the streets.
Road building
Bridges
Food canning, matchsticks, safety lamps (mining), lawn mowers,
vaccinations
Initial impact
Initially very limited impact on the economy: from 160 to 1800 only 0.2%
increase in per capita income
Financial constraints due to rapid population expansion and new wars and
taxes.
End of independent producers
Harshness of industrial life: conditions became hazardous, and it required
many people to join the workforce to stay fed.
Squalid industrial towns with high mortality rates.
Small houses were the typical residences of workers in industrial
towns.
Emergence and Processes
Conditions at the outset:
Significant rise in population
Occupational specialization
New navigational techniques
Banking system and financial institutions
Why Britain?
Single-reason theories:
Traditional agrarian structures in continent
Difference in English ‘character’
Hartwell’s continuation theories
Ecological and economic explanations
Coal deposits
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

The history of industrialization is as old as humanity. Rather a change in the degree of change. Mid-late 18th century to early-mid 19th century. Some historians talk about a second industrial revolution, which some have written about in the 70s. Characterized by the beginnings of fossil fuel, rapid production of weapons. New modes of transportation: catalyst for globalization. Accelerated structural change in technology, economy, and society. Revolutionized the economy of the west and eventually the rest of the world. Inventions and innovations (1) advances in broad fronts: Textile, metallurgy, mining, transport, agriculture, and power production. One change in an industry will change the web of resources as it creates needs for other goods and services. (a) before 1733: newcomen engine, flying shuttle. (b) after 1768: jenny, water frame, watt"s engine, seed drill, etc. (3) other inventions: Paper industry: paper was finally produced with a new method which allowed it to be made flat on both sides.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.