HIST 122 Lecture Notes - Ecological Footprint, Agricultural Engineering, Ozone Layer

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Queen's University
Department
History
Course
HIST 122
Page:
of 3
History 122 second last class
Environmental legacies of IR
- reliance on fossil fuels
- accelerated depletion
- deep pollution (pollution has penetrated on a molecular level)
Technology and the path ahead
- the complacent path
o choose to be ignorant
o radical return ( go back to how things were before technology)
- the introspective path
o making more informed decisions
Population
- explosion of people since 1950
- Technology and food production have lead to a higher population
- Agricultural engineering has helped population
- Medicine
- Sanitation
What does this mean?
-impact on the planet because of population
- over 300000 indivduals born every day
-human bio mass explosion
- unprecedented pull on ecosystems
- Agents of mass extinction
- by 4051 bc total weight of human will be the total weight of the earth
Human years
- the meaning of human years
- 18 billion beings have lived on this world
- 2.1 trillion years life has been on this earth
- the last 4 million years human years have been lived 28% of those human
years are after 1750
- after 1900: 20%
- 20th century one fifth of the entire human years in .000025 part of human
history
- after 1950: 13%
energy consumption
- somatic energy regime
o before 1800 globally people used mostly somatic energy
o stored somatic energy by controlling other people (slaves)
o Fluctuations in somatic energy
o Limitations (our own energy)
o Fossil-fuel energy regime in 1850 by the end of the century we were
very dependent on fossil fuel
- Coal consumption
o 1800: 10 million metric tons of coal used mostly by England
o by 1900: 1000 million metric tons
o 1990:5000 million metric tons
o ruins the environment
- steam engine
o earliest form of usage was to draw water for coal mines
o efficiency before 1800 not really used
o capacity in 1800 5% efficient
o by 1900 they became 30 times more powerful
o feedback loop and coal consumption
- oil consumption
o drake something found out how to drill for petroleum
o in 1880 germans found out you could use petroleum as fuel
o replacement of biomass fuel (cow dung)
o global disparity and inequity
o usa argues that major power centers in europe has the same kind of
style
o in 1800: 0 consumption of oil
o 1900: 20 million metric tons used
o 1990:3000 million metric tons used
- total energy
o 1800: 400 million metric tons used
o 1900: 1900 million metric tons used
o 1990: 30,00 million metric tons
o the prodigal century
- fossil fuel: the large picture
o benefits
communication
travel
o costs
immense and irreversible pollution
o soil erosion
o diminishing soil due to oils and population increase
o poison to flora and fauna
Global inequality
- the concept of energy slave if a human works every day use 30 energy slaves
- global average is 20
- united states consumes 75 energy slaves per captia
- Bangladesh consumes 1
- Energy and political structure
o People wanting more access to energy slaves
Pollution
Green house gases
- colder here because of green house gases
- since 1750 the production of greenhouse gases have increased so much the
earth has become much warmer
- global average increase in temperature
Ozone layer depletion
- Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina
- Cfc in aerosols releases chlorine in such a way that something reacts that
prevents solar something to hit our world
- All cfc molecules made in 1930’s are still in the artic air
- North American thinning
- 10% decrease in 1970’s
Impact
- more skin cancers
- more cataracts
- destruction of plants species
- disruption of food chain
Sustainability
Measures of unsustaibale or life
- ecological footprint: amount we consume by the amount we produce
- living planet index
- 37% of our biodiversity has been wiped out since 1970
- consuming more then what is available to us since 1999
defining sustainability
- improving quality of human life while remaning whithin the carrying
capacity of the ecosystems
- the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own
sustain develop: economy
- infrastructure
- production
- consumption
- government
-
wellbeing:
- health
- quality of life
- potential

Document Summary

Environmental legacies of ir reliance on fossil fuels. Deep pollution (pollution has penetrated on a molecular level) Technology and the path ahead the complacent path: choose to be ignorant, radical return ( go back to how things were before technology) the introspective path, making more informed decisions. Technology and food production have lead to a higher population. By 4051 bc total weight of human will be the total weight of the earth. 18 billion beings have lived on this world. 2. 1 trillion years life has been on this earth the last 4 million years human years have been lived 28% of those human years are after 1750. 20th century one fifth of the entire human years in . 000025 part of human history. Communication: costs travel immense and irreversible pollution, soil erosion, diminishing soil due to oils and population increase, poison to flora and fauna.