Americans and foreigners looking at la, until wwi: even social scientists in 1960s see same diagnosis, problem is backwardness and tradition, way people saw things, way scholars saw things, this dual society. 19th century and turn of 20th: look at senators or congress people. Where personally might spend a month or two year, overseer the rest of the year. Rivalry between two leaders might be rooted in ideology: like catholic church super important, other supported strong presidency, other congress/parliament. But not voting for one another for these reasons, voted for and against a person because of personal loyalty. Managed elections and patrichial control of voters started to turn to crisis (faced new competitors and challenges that not all latin. When land was abundant and cheap, could have legal documents describing peoples lands with vague property lines. England had series of election reform to make.