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Lecture 9

History 121 Notes Tutorial Lecture 9 Totalitarianism.pdf

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HIST 121

th History Notes March 11 Lecture 9 Totalitarianism th 1. Intro: Crisis and the Beginning of the 20 Century Crystal Palace, advent of science and philosophy, etc., time of the turn of the century was a very optimistic one full of hope and progress, science and reason World War 1 shatters it 2. World War 1 and World Crisis a. Heder spawned nationalism-> imperialism and folk tales which swept Germany and inspired many small countries to wish for independence One such outbreak sparked Bosnian powderkeg Sarajevo, June 28, 1914 b. The Modern, Industrial War The Western Front the focus here Machine Gun and artillery significant changes allowed certain nations to dominate other countries, becomes tragic when used in war against each other Trench Warfare resulted in extended slaughter of stalemates Battle of the Somme, 1916, horrific losses on both sides for no real gain c. The Home Front 1. Mobilization: Conscription and the War Machine First war where large scale conscription was used and necessary Free market capitalism and liberal economic policies more restricted than any time previously in WW1 war economies Rations, price and wage limits, labour laws, government owned factories, etc. 2. Propaganda Became wide-spread for the first time, government censorship heavy, atrocities fabricated, poor battle results misreported, much of it based of the success of visual advertising and posters d. The War to End all Wars, 1919 War ends to due exhaustion, Germany and Austria more or less collapse from within, above became their goal, method became to find a scapegoat, which became Germany, Nationalism triumphs again as League of Nations and Woodrow Wilson acknowledge other small nations and nationalism in effort to divest motive to fight 3. The Interwar Years and the Rise of Dictatorship Different kind of optimism persisted in that it was believed a better world could still be obtained through enough effort and murder a. Russia in Civil War, 1918-1921 Lenin consolidating power but being fought by the Whites, learned lesson of mobilization to stir up those under his control with War Communism to great effect against counter-revolutionaries to win, however, war communism did not stop, Stalin wouldn’t put down that ball War Communism b. Weimar Germany in despair Interwar Germany coloured by Weimar regime Losing politically and economically, demilitarization was humiliating, economic reparations absolutely crippling, inflation runaway c. The Great Depression and the Crisis of Liberalism, 1929-1933 Stock market boom in the 20’s crashes in the States, US economy falls through the floor, drags rest of the world down with it in a downward spiral Caused much doubt in ideas of liberalism, lack of government control had killed it, the war economy methods seemed the solution, US led the way with the New Deal, regulations of all kinds, unemployment program, public works program, a partial transition to planned economy challenging liberalism politically and economically 4. Communism and Fascism: The Rise of Totalitarianism, both agreed Liberalism was dead but disagreed as to why Both wanted to offer more than rights and profit, something to believe in and live and die for, to work for, a new better progressive and harmonious world order, borne out of
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