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Note #3 January 22.pdf

7 Pages

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HIST 122
Amitava Chowdhury

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2013-01-24 8:03 PM Mondays 3-5pm Watson 231 th -Understand the causes of 19 century global migrations -Learn about the major migration trends between 1835-1890 -Examine two case studies of mass migration I. Causes and Context -Migration history -Ubiquity -People moves and became agents of change (technological ideas, culture, intellectual ideas) -Reasons why societies have changed: •Internal contradictions •Adaption with the environment •Interactions with natives -Types of Migration: •Involuntary Migrations- Ex, slaves, those who were convicts in their home countries, didn’t want to go to war •Voluntary Migrations- Ex, missionaries *Difficult to determine between the two; ambiguous; thin line -Categories (Patrick Manning) •Home-community Migration- Women marrying into a mans family •Colonization- moving to a different place and creating a colony; whether or not there was people there before (and the overtook that society) •Whole-community Migration- (Seasonal and permanent) nomads, hunting communities; not common with people, common in animal societies •Cross-community Migration- forcibly moved to another part of the world, enter a prior community that could treat them well or badly -‘A Curious Conjuncture’ •Emancipation of slavery and mass migration- millions of people moved because of slavery abolition •Industrial Revolution and global migration- -Abolition: Inplementing freedom; what happened after? •How to provide plantations with a labour force after slavery abolition? ‘What, except compulsion?’ •Freedom in six equal parts (slaves worked dawn to dusk six days a week, had Sunday off, paid on Saturday only) •Manumission- slaves could save up and buy freedom •Idea that slaves would save up for manumission •‘Starve them out of idleness’- tax slaves wherever they settled outside of plantation •^None of these were adopted, just ideas •From slaves to apprentices- slaves required to work 40-45 hours a week for free for five years; a process of ‘deceptive peace’, it looked like freedom but wasn’t really -‘Of dam tiefs and ol rogues…’ •Solve the labour vacuum problem •Planters supported this to exploit slaves to the fullest; knew they didn’t have to take care of slaves past the five years •Metropolitan cause- slaves would become violent when freed •The abolitionist hated the idea; called it a new system of slavery •‘Is this what you call free!’ -‘A new monstrosity…’ •Women faced the biggest problem- previously, when they had a child they could take time off to take care of the new potential slave; now mothers were forced to go back to work the day after child birth; women treated more harshly than men •‘Treadmill’- used to punish the English working class; had to run on a wheel with hands tied to top, many died this way -The day freedom came- 1838; colony-wide celebrations, joined hands with abolitionists -Experiments with labour •Bring labourers from places like Sierra Leone and around Africa, could not continue this for very long •Many came from Portugal, Germany, Java (Dutch), China, India -Industrialization and Migration •Unprecedented multi-lateral dispersal- had no choice but to work in these industries •New forms of production- products that needed more labour; could never find enough labourers to upkeep •Transportation technologies- by land and sea; now very easy to cross oceans to work •Unfolded in local and global level- regionally, spherically, globally; Australian industries recruiting labourers •Internal- Step- External migrations- increasingly farther away from home; locally and then unfolding into a global scheme II. The Migration Trends - People evicted out of their homes because of Irish potato famine; forced to migrate to different countries -Had to ‘enlist’ themselves as migrants -Long-distance land migration in the African colonies; people moved in mass -England to Jamaica -China to US (California and Virginia) -56 million Europeans migrated in the 19 thcentury; not including slavery and endangered labourers -Who were the migrants? •Many were settlers (and colonists) with money; ability to purchase land; pay for the migratory process and set up in a new place •Sojourners- missio
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