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HIST 287 #2

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HIST 287

Sept 12, 2013 HIST 287 – Class #2 Titles for Nobility - Dukes and Duchesses - Marquesses and Marchionesses - Earl and Countesses - Viscounts and Vicountesses - Baron and Baronesses Titles not part of the Peerage: Baronets and Knights - Baronets are identified by the prefix Sir, and they are hereditary titles - Knighthoods are not hereditary Dates Calendars - Throughout the Middle Ages, Europeans had relied on the Julian Calendar o But there were flaws - By the mid 1500s there were many proposals for a calendar reform o The Gregorian calendar - Britain did not adopt the new calendar until 1752 - Our period only uses the old Julian Calendar English Geography - It’s a country of many languages: Welsh, Cornish, Gaelic and English o Multi-lingual area at that time - England is broken up by counties - Many Dioceses in Britain (religions) o A Cathedral defines the city o Exceptions are Oxford and Cambridge due to their universities and history - Ireland has Irish Lords which controls the areas they are in Government under the Early Tudors and Monarchial Culture Henry VII and Henry VIII - political structures of these two monarcs - the two monarchs are known for centralizing and modernizing the state - The War of the Roses in 1455 o House of Lancaster and House of York  Both belived they had the rightful claim to the English throne - The yorks defeat the Lancasters - Richard is a York king when Richard came into power Henry Tudor Invades - Henry VII is one of the few survivors of the Lncastar family - He defeats Richard III at Bosworth field and Henry VIII becomes king - Began the Tudor line England in 1485 - Henry VII took the crown but maintaining it was a difficult challenge - Henry was aware of the delicate state of England - Was Henry the first Modern King or Last Medieval king? - His changes paved the way for his son, Henry VIII - Three tiers of territory o First tier was the south eat corner, focusing on London and Westminster o Second tier included Devon and Cornwall, Lancashire, the Yorkshire ridings, and Lincolnshire; royal authority indirect in these location o Third tier included Calais, wales, channel islands, and Ireland o In 1500s 50% of Ireland did not speak English o Wales was a land of peace but outside of it, it was seen as a savage island o Irish was linked to savagery and war while English was linked to civilisation - The Tudors work toward bringing all areas of England under the control of the crown - Process of united the islands began with Henry VII Early Tudor Symbols - After Bosworth, Henry VII stresses that he has legal claim to the throne - He marries Elizabeth of york, daughter of Henry IV - Symbol of Tudor rose (contains red and white, which represents york and lancaster) - Emphasize sacral nature of kingship - Unite the house of Lancaster and House of York - Henry names his son Arthur, after king Arthur - Henry’s government faced rebellions from the york family that were easily defeated o It illustrates the difficulties that Henry was facing - Lancaster – red rose; York - white rose Henry and the Nobility - Power of nobles declines during Henry’s rule - Some nobles imprisoned for siding with Richard III - Few new nobles created because Henry VII did not want to create more o Viewed them as rivals to his power o Acted as an insurance to his bad behaviour - Bonds used to control behavior of nobles - The Wars of the Roses had shown Henry the danger od an overly powerful nobility - The Nobility did realize a decline in influence - One fo the key breks from the medieveal past - The nobles decline meant that he must have more supporters New Methods - Crown offices become bureaucratic positions, staffed with men loyal to the king - Crown’s authority now more visible in the localities - Council ommitteess frequently staff with lawyers - More effective collection of onet - Combines personal wealth with corwn revenue and out it towards what ever project would strengthen crown’s authority - His councils were similar to the nobles - Henry obsessed with the state and with money - Unlike medieval kings, henry combined private accounts and the state’s debts - Made better use and developed a national understanding of finance How do we assess Henry VII? - All of henry’s policies designed to secure the tudor dynasty - View slide There was much change with Henry VII’s rule in Englsih history - His changes were permanent - Henry did not intend to alter the En
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