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5.2 HIST 295, October 12th

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HIST 295
Gordon Dueck

HIST 306 Holocaust: Problems and Interpretations Friday, October 12 2012 Countries discussed in Wistrich’s chapter “Collaboration Across Europe”  Ukraine  Byelorussia (Belarus)  Lithuania  Croatia  Romania  Hungary  Slovakia  Denmark o Was willing and able to save the entirety of their Jewish population (even the foreign born) o Moved them to Sweden (which was neutral and willing to take in Jews from time to time – but for a price) – gave them work visas  Holland  Belgium  France  Italy  Bulgaria  Holocaust wasn’t equally bad in every country  What was the signal for a high or low death rate? o Ancient traditions of Anti-Semitism indicates where things were going terribly wrong (generally, but there were exceptions)  Jews were in trouble where they were rendered stateless (ex: Romania) o No one wanted to take responsibility for your life – there were no protestors o Romania left its own acculturated Jews alone – but was brutal towards stateless Jews  Sweden was neutral during the war o They profited from their neutrality  They would charge a fee for Jews to seek refuge in their country o Took in all the Danish Jews, and even allowed foreign born Jews to apply for work visas  Finland was a Nazi ally – union of convenience o Held off the Soviet army o Joined Hitler’s army when they invaded Soviet Russia o A democratic country (not totalitarian dictatorship!) o Had Jews in their army, fighting alongside Nazis in Russia o Would have a synagogue for their Jewish soldiers o Refused to hand over their Jews  Norway o Despite the brave fighting of their forces, Norway succumbed to the Nazi army o Jews in Norway weren’t safe o Many Nazi sympathizers changed their minds when it became clear that Germany would lose the war o Irony: according to German racial philosophy, their closest brethren should have been the Nordics – but they were the least co-operative  Scandinavia o According to Nazi ideology, Scandinavians should have been some of their greatest allies – but they weren’t o Nazi’s saw them as slaves – they didn’t belong in upper classes o Generally opposed Anti-Semitic policies  Chanel Islands o Officers were sent here when Nazis took over France o The local English followed Nazi orders to seek out Jews o Many Jews had already fled, but there were still pockets here and there  Three women were found and were sent to Auschwitz **Wherever there were local police forces willing to help, the Jews were essentially doomed**  Nothing was independent of the party (not the police, the judiciaries, etc.) – everything was under the political wing According to Wistrich  Holocaust began, arguably, in the Soviet Union  Killing occurred in remarkably public way. Why? o They wanted to show that this was spontaneous – they had to show the cruelty to show that it was the result of local anger (locals took their anger out on the Jews for having collaborated with Soviet communism – at least that’s what the Nazis wanted people to believe) o Both Germany and the Soviet Union were thinking about the propaganda possibilities of killing o Once the death camps came to be, killing was kept much more secret as opposed to public  Einzatzgruppen have the help of many collaborators, especially local Schutzmannschaft (auxiliary police battalions)  German “Order Police” or Ordnungspolizei  Areas such as Ukraine, Lithuania, Romania, Croatia, and Hungary were particularly harsh on Jews. Why? o Long histories of Anti-Semitism o Serbians were targeted in Croatia – nationalism and religious differences were combined
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