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Pols241 week 12 lec 1.docx

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Political Studies
POLS 241
Dru Lauzon

Pols241 week 12 lec.1 nov 25  Exam Question: o How can CB McPherson and Linz (pg.295) help us understand the emergence and special characteristics of democracy in Latin America, Russia and Africa. How is ti different than the European experience (focus mostly on LA, Russia and Africa)  We’ve been talking about Africa o Leaders are increasingly arguing that Africa should be left alone to create its own democracy.  3 example of how Africa has dealt with democratizations  1) most difficult (Nigeria) o Half of the African population lives in Nigeria o What happens here will set the tone for the rest o Independent in 1960 o Military take over in 1966  Created a series of military regimes (1966-1999=33 years) o Have stabilized the democratic process y providing regional groups the opportunity to govern some of their own affairs.  Using federalism (not a democratic features, but it works for democracy) o Not predisposed to be a winner of the democratic game o 1999  Hold an election  Elects a president, Oba Sancho of the People democratic party.  Election is a mess (there is violence, irregularities, but it is upheld by the courts) o 2003  Pres re-relected  Qualified internationally as being even more of a sham (voting irregularities, but still upheld, president remains) o 2007  Another PDP leader is elected (contested by itnerntional observers, voting irregularities, abuse of power, violence) still upheld by courts.  Died in 2010 and replaced by PDP again and re-elected in 2011.  This election in 2011 was a called a clear election (not as much violence, etc)  Landslide election by 51% (good luck john (?)) o Therefore, there is a progression from rotten election to one that is relatively clean  Elections contested in courts  A model of adversarial competition o Thus, looks very much like French 19 century model.  Nigeria, represents an attempt to follow western European path to democracy.  Pre-disposed to western European path because it is very divided(religion ad 18 different ethnic group)  Therefore, not very different from 19 century Europe  Caveat  Presidents that were elected were not chosen by the same linguistic/ethnic group  People of both major religions voted for them o There were divisions but some candidates were also able to bridge the divide between religion/ethnicity and linguistic background. o Therefore, disagrees with most observers  Says it is far from a democracy because it is too messy.  However, the fact that these divides can be bridged after such a long time= remarkable  Nigeria has done this in 14 years compared to Frances 18 years  These are good first steps on the path to democracy. (might actually be more pre- disposed than France to democracy) o Is it bad to have a one party state?  Ex. Saskatchewan  Very little evidence of Africa culture  Very European in terms of politics and society  Liberal party won
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