PSYC 235 Lecture Notes - Bipolar Disorder, Mood Disorder, Frontal Lobe
Cyber Bowie #3 (Developmental Disorders)
1. According to Barkley, what is one of the functions of the upper portion Anterior
Cingulate Cortex (ACC)? Think of an example in your life where the upper portion of
the ACC would be activated.
Helping you make decisions in social conflicts, where there are social
consequences now and later for what you are about to do. The ACC helps
negotiate the conflicts. It buys you time to think about it, and then allows
you to execute behaviour that is in your long-term welfare.
2. According to Barkley, what is one of the functions of the lower portion of the
ACC? Think of an example in your life where the lower portion of the ACC would be
Plays a role whenever there are emotional conflicts. This is where the frontal
lobe is going to suppress the emotional system.
3. Barkley notes that the ACC is both smaller in individuals with ADHD, and is less
active when they face social and/or emotional conflict.
a. Which section of the brain becomes less regulated as a result of having lower ACC
The limbic system (regulates emotion)
b. Given this low ACC activity, what symptoms would one expect as a result?
Emotionally impulsive, low frustration tolerance, impatience, quickness to
anger, won’t wait, showing your emotions more easily
c. According to Barkley, how can the neurobiology and symptoms of ADHD be
differentiated from mood disorders like Bipolar disorder?
With mood disorders, the limbic system is over-expressing abnormal levels of
emotion, and patients have trouble regulating it – bipolar disorder
ADHD is not a mood disorder – failure to regular mood, inability to inhibit,
self-calm, self-sooth, contemplate and moderate emotions
The mood can be the same with both, but how we express it is different
Next, take a look at this TED talk by Temple Grandin:
1. The title of Temple’s presentation is “The world needs all kinds of minds”.
a. How does Temple describe her mind or her way of thinking? Does this generalize to
other people on the autism spectrum?
She thinks in pictures, not language. The autistic mind attends to detail
(would pick little letters more quickly rather then big letters). She excelled
in art classes, the abstract.
b. How has Temple’s way of thinking enabled her to work to improve conditions for
Visual thinking has been a huge assset in her career designing livestock
facilities: improving how cattle are treated at a slaughter plant
Visual thinking provides great insights into the animal mind (animal’s are
Her mind puts Sensory-based information into categories. She thinks bottom-up,
takes little pieces and put them together like a puzzle.
c. Temple describes autism as a trade-off between two things. What are these and how
is this trade-off related to animals?
Autism as a trade-off between thinking and social.
2. Temple Grandin identifies several problems related to how children with autism are
educated today. What are these problems and what recommendations does she make to
engage these children academically?
They need to get the kids interested, and bring forth interesting things in
classes, like science.
Her science teacher got her to study even though she didn’t want to study
They’ve taken out autoshop class, drafting and art class
Use the fixations that some autistic kids have to motivate them to do new
3. At several points throughout her presentation, Temple refers to the smart, geeky,
nerdy kids. Are all geeky, socially isolated children on the autism spectrum? What
characteristics differentiate between a child with Asperger’s Syndrome and a “nerdy”