PSYC 235 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Bipolar Disorder, Mood Disorder, Psychomotor Retardation

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Published on 7 Aug 2012
School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 235
The Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Biploar I Disorder
Bipolar II Disorder
Dysthymia
Cyclothymia
Unipolar vs. Bipolar Mood Disorder
Directionality
Cyclicity
Severity
Duration
Polarity
Introduction to Major Depression
MD different from “normal” depressed mood:
Severity of symptoms
Number of symptoms
Duration of disturbance in functioning
Depression vs. Moodiness
There is an arbitrary line for diagnosis
The Burden of Depression
Point Prevalence = 5% (1.35 million in Canada)
Lifetime Prevalence = 10-15%
Average age of onset = early 20s
Sex Ratio = 2:1
Social cost - $14.4 billion in Canada / $475 million in Ontario
70% of suicides are diagnosed with Depression
o Depression increases suicide risk 4-folf
Untreated depression
Lower graduation rates
Below average grades
Lower occupational status
Physical health problems
Relationship problems
Substance abuse
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Defining Major Depression
Depressed Mood / Loss of interest-Pleasure
+
3-4 other symptoms
=
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
Symptoms of Major Depression
1. Depressed mood Must meet at
2. Loss of interest in activities and/or people least one of these
3. Marked insomnia or hypersomnia
4. Low energy
5. Appetite disturbance
6. Psychomotor retardation or agitation (lack of productive activity)
7. Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
8. Poor concentration or indecision
9. Thoughts of death and/or suicide A total of 5 or more of 9
Major Depression Defined
Symptoms must last at least 2 weeks (average = 6 months)
Symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment
50-90% experience recurrent episodes
Impairment
Symptoms significantly interfere with normal functioning:
At work/school: absenteeism, poor evaluation, conflict
In relationships: no interest in activities, withdrawal/isolation, increase in
conflict
Depression is associated with:
Substance use and abuse
Delinquency
School dropout
Early pregnancy
Poor social functioning
Occupational impairment
Career dissatisfaction
Low psychological well-being
Health difficulties
Suicidal behaviours
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Document Summary

There is an arbitrary line for diagnosis. Point prevalence = 5% (1. 35 million in canada) Average age of onset = early 20s. Social cost - . 4 billion in canada / million in ontario. 70% of suicides are diagnosed with depression: depression increases suicide risk 4-folf. Symptoms must last at least 2 weeks (average = 6 months) Symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment. In relationships: no interest in activities, withdrawal/isolation, increase in conflict. Persistently depressed mood that continues for at least 2 years (can"t have gone without symptoms for >2 months) Early onset < age 20, greater chronicity, poorer prognosis. Family studies: 1st degree relatives 2-5x more likely to develop unipolar depression; 7-15x more likely to develop bipolar disorder. Twin studies: concordance rates for unipolar depression of 40-59% for mz twins, 20-30% for dz twins; for bipolar disorder: 65% mz, 14% dz.

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