PSYC 400 Lecture 3: Cognitive Models of Learning

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29 Dec 2020
Week 3: Cognitive Models of Learning
Class Notes
Balancing intrinsic and extraneous
o Intrinsic can be optimized by segmenting introduce elements before interactions
o Extraneous can be reduced by ge4tting rid of busy slides, irrelevant information
Can increase germane by telling students to apply concept to different context
How do we measure mental effort?
o Self-report proven to be just as good a measure as others
o Response time
o Physiological measures i.e. heart rate (more costly and resource-intensive)
Expertise reversal effect unnecessary information doesn’t facilitate learning
Ways to modify intrinsic load: segment information, signal to students how information chunked
Efficacy and accuracy together determine expertise
Benefits of constructivism
o Elaboration and retrieval for memory, make judgements about own learning i.e. avoid
fluency effects, make connections to add to existing schemata
Exam Review Notes
Information processing theory need people to pay attention (selective attention) and avoid
mind wandering to process incoming information effectively
o Need to maintain information in STM for a bit before encoded into LTM
o Information needs to assimilate with, or adjust, pre-existing schemata
o Information processed through two channels without doubled effort required
Phonologically process words/sounds regardless if reading or listening
Visually/spatially pictures/graphics
Dual processing: offload information from one channel to another so students
can have both phonological and visual processing
If information processed through two channels, cognitive capacity is also
doubled since equally capable
o Need to consider redundancy effects
Best strategy to either put up text and be quiet to let them read, or put up related
visuals and speak aloud whats not on the screen
Complementary boosts comprehension important to remember images
also take up mental effort
Good to use PowerPoints as organizers i.e. on screen have four prompts that
would be the pillars of a theory for professors and students to refer back to, and
remember the broader concepts that information falls under
o If students given information they have no prior knowledge on, not going to remember it
Have to scaffold information so there’s something in LTM it will stick to
o Then, retrieval useful for strengthening connections to make memories stronger
Retrieval practices should be designed into course okay if they get it wrong, but
important to make the effort and activate the memory traces, then be motivated to
correct their understanding
Cognitive load theory optimize intrinsic, decrease extraneous, maximize germane
o Sometimes might want to introduce some extraneous load i.e. funny pictures, humour,
music, to reduce stress offer bit of a break and then bring them back, as personal side
for student-teacher relationships
Constructivism scaffolding, zone of proximal development (relating to intrinsic load)
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