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Lecture 5

Week 5 Online Notes

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

Week 5: The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disorders Part 2 SUBSTANCE- RELATED DISORDERS Substance- use disorders  Psychoactive substance: A chemical substance that acts upon the central nervous system where it affects brain function, changing a person’s emotions, perceptions, or thoughts  Examples: Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, nicotine… Substance dependence occurs when… An individual's repeated use results in "tolerance withdrawal and compulsive drug-seeking behaviour"; includes difficulty cutting back despite wanting to do so. Substance abuse is diagnosed when a person's repeated use of a substance results in serious adverse consequences. A diagnosis is made when the individual’s repeated use of the substance results in serious adverse consequences. In order to be diagnosed with substance abuse the individual must meet one of the following: 1. Repeated failure to fulfill important obligations as a result of the substance (e.g. missing work) 2. Repeated use of the substance in a situation that is dangerous (e.g. drinking and driving) 3. Repeated legal problems related to the substance (e.g. being arrested for public intoxication) 4. Continued use of the substance despite it causing problems in the individual's social or interpersonal relationships (e.g. frequent fights with a partner while intoxicated regarding usage) Substance- induced disorders   Substance intoxication: Occurs when a person suffers clinically significant negative or harmful behavioural changes or psychological effects because of the influence of a psychoactive substance.  Substance withdrawal: Occurs when a person suffers clinically significant negative or harmful behavioural changes or psychological effects because they recently stopped prolonged use of a psychoactive substance. Criteria when making a substance- related disorder diagnosis ~ o Repeated intoxication o Tolerance o Degree to which o Withdrawal o Difficulty quitting problems result symptoms o General well being Substance- induced mental disorders ~ o Depression o Sleep disorders o Amnesia o Anxiety o Psychosis Noted symptoms include ~ o Mania o Amnesia o Psychosis o Depression Positive and negative symptoms   Positive symptoms: Positive symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations usually reflect an excess or distortion of a normal brain function.  Negative symptoms: Negative symptoms such as slowed speech or movement normally reflect a diminution or loss of normal brain function.  NOTE - (positive = presence and negative = absence)  Psychosis: Conditions which affect the mind whereby there has been a loss of contact with reality. Schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorders  Schizophrenia has five main subtypes, all which have different symptoms. However, all are characterized by the presence of at least two of the following:  Delusions  Hallucinations  Disorganized speech  Grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour  Negative symptoms (e.g., flattened affect, decrease in production of speech) Schizophreniform disorder: A psychological disorder where the individual experiences the symptoms of schizophrenia for a period of only one to six months. Schizoaffectic disorder: A psychological disorder where a person experiences a mood episode such as depression or mania at the same time that he/she is exhibiting symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations or delusions. Biological bases ~ Schizophrenia is a pervasive illness, affecting perception, emotion, cognition, motivation, etc. The diathesis-stress model tells us that it most likely results from a combination of predispositions and environmental stress. This combination provides biochemical and anatomical change in the brain. Dopamine is one of the chemicals used in the brain to communicate among brain cells. A prominent theo
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