Psyc week 18
• Social psychology: the study of how individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are
influenced by social context.
• Self-schema: beliefs people hold about themselves that guide how they process self-
relevant info --- how they categorize and store info about themselves.
• Self-concept: an individual’s perception of self, including knowledge, feelings, and ideas
about oneself. It is used to as a basis for how we describe ourselves.
• Schematicity(示意的): the importance of particular self-schemes to a person’s self-
• Aschematic: not having a schema for a particular categorization or situation.
• Self-awareness: the ability to recognize oneself as a distinct entity
• Introspection: looking inward to one’s own thoughts and feelings
• Affective forecasting: predicting how one would feel about a future emotional event.
• Self-perception theory: when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people sometimes
determine their attitudes and feelings by observing their own behavior. (theory that
states we determine our attitudes and beliefs by looking at our own behaviors)
• Looking-glass self: the notion that other people serves as mirrors in which we see
ourselves (theory that states we see ourselves as others see us)
• Social comparison theory: the theory that people evaluate their own abilities and
opinions by comparing themselves to others (theory that states we evaluate our abilities
based on those around us)
• Self-esteem: overall feelings of approval and acceptance of self
Self-esteem is to feelings. Self-concept is to thoughts
• Sociometer theory: states that self-esteem evolved as a way to measure interpersonal
relationships (widely accepted)
• Terror management theory: states that all human behaviors is motivated by the fear of
our own mortality (controversial)
• Self-handicapping: engaging in behaviors designed to sabotage one’s own performance
in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure • Basking in reflected glory: associating with others who are successful to increasing one’s
• Self-serving cognition: general beliefs about the self that serve to enhance self-esteem
• Self-discrepancy theory: our self-esteem and emotional states are determined by the
match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves
(theory that states our emotional state is dependent on the mismatch between how we
see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves)
• Personal or situational
- Attributions: explanations for the causes of one’s own and other’s behavior.
- Bystander effect (5steps)
1. Notice what is happening
2. Interprets as emergency
3. Assuming personal responsibility
4. Knowledge to help
5. Making decision to involved
- Diffusion of responsibility: the tendency for witness or bystanders to assume that
someone else will intervene
- Identity fusion: when an individual’s personal identity becomes completely
equivalent to his or her social identity as a member of a certain group
• Covariation principle: an attribution theory in which people make causal inferences to
explain why they and either people behave in a certain way
- Consistency: is the person’s behaviors consistent over time? If the person behaves
this regularly, consistency is high
- Consensus: how are people reacting to the same stimulus? If most people behave in
the same way, consensus is high
- Distinctiveness: does this person react the same or differently to other stimuli (or in
other situations)? If the person reacts differently in other situations, distinctiveness
• Heuristics (common sense): short-cut - Representative: a mental short cut used to judge membership in a group based on a
typical example or prototype (原形) of that group. Ex: doctors---wealthy
- Availability: a mental short cut used to judge the likelihood or frequency of events
based on info available in memory
- Anchoring: a mental short cut used to estimate value or size based on a suggested
• Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal
factors and underestimate the impact of situational factors when attributing the causes
of another’s behavior
• Knowledge across situations hypothesis: people used to judge the behavior of those
who they know well to be more flexible and more dependent on the situation than the
behavior of those they know less well
• Visual orientation hypothesis: we attribute behavior to personality differently for others
than we do ourselves because we see the environment only through our own eyes, but
we focus on other people and ignore the environment
• Person positivity bias: the tendency to evaluate individuals more favorably than groups.
• Trait negativity bias: the tendency to be more influenced by negative info than positive
• Primacy effect: the tendency for info that is presented earlier to be more influential
than info that is presented later.
• One thing at a time
- Initial categorization: occurs immediately upon perceiving a person. An individual
makes automatic judgement based on physical characteristics and obvious social
- Personal relevance: to determine if the other individual is personally relevant; if not
maintain initial category-based impression; if yes, continue to process
- Attention and interpretation: during the attention and interpretation phase, u pay
attention to and interpret behavior the person displays and make trait judgment - Confirmatory categorization: u try to preserve the initial categorization and u are
motivated to do so, u will continue to process info.
- Recategorization: based on new info gathered, we try to find a new social category
that the individual fits in.
- Piecemeal integration (零碎整合): instead of categorization, you can combine
specific info you’ve ;earned about the individual into an overall assessment.
- Public expression and further assessment: u engage in behavior with the individual
based on the impression u ‘ve formed and continue to process more info if needed.
• Prejudice (emotional component): a negative feeling toward people based on their
membership in certain groups
- Increased by competition; decreased by cooperation
• Stereotypes (cognitive component): organ