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Lecture 2

Week 21 Personality Theories Online Lesson.docx

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PSYC 100
Erica Refling

Psychology Week 21: Personality Theories Online Lesson - Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another - Objective tests o Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory (MMPI-2) asks people answer true/false questions about themselves o NED Personality Inventory (N=neuroticism, E = extroversion, O = openness to experience) measures personality factors by using a series of statements that a person agrees or disagrees with on a five-point scale  NEO-PI-3 (most recent test) measures 5 factors and is based on the five factor model - Diagnostic Test o Rorschach test (projective test)– inkblots are presented and person must describe what they see - Consultants and dating sites use variants of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) – based on Carl Jung’s idea – identifies personality types and cognitive styles - Thematic Appeception Test (TAT) (projective test) – person makes up stories about a series of ambiguous pictures presented on cards - Trait approach o Classic approach to the psychological study of personality o Classifies and describes psychological characteristics by which people differ consistently between situations and over time o Goal: find small sets of meaningful traits that can describe effectively the personality of anyone - Factor analysis: statistical analysis that examines all of the correlations between all of the items and determines if any of them are highly correlated with each other - Factor: a general type or category that contributes to an outcome - Researcher examines factors to determine if there is a common theme - Statistical factor analysis finds clusters of related answers to simple questions about self which indicates a common underlying factor/trait - 16 PF Questionnaire: multiple-choice personality questionnaire developed by Cattell to measure 16 normal adult personality dimensions - Five factor Model: currently the best trait model and dominant approach - Big Five: five personality dimensions derived from analyses of the natural language terms people use to describe themselves and others (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) – reliable and significant prediction of behaviours o Good at describing people and predicting actions o Do not explain why people act the way they do - NEO personality inventory: instrument used to measure the elements described in the five-factor model - We also behave according to social norms and environmental cues - Sigmund Freud o Primary theorist in psychodynamic o Believe unconscious was filled with mostly unacceptable feelings, desires, and memories - Psychoanalytic theory: Freud’s theory of personality based on conflict between the conscious and unconscious mind and on developmental stages tied to various bodily functions - Id, Ego, and Superego o Id is completely unconscious, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives and operates on a pleasure principle and demands immediate gratification o Ego is mostly unconscious, mediates the conflict demands of the id, the superego, and reality – strives to satisfy the id’s desires in appropriate ways that bring pleasure rather than pain – operates on the reality principle o Superego is both conscious and unconscious which strives to live up to internalized ideals and desires to follow the rules and restrictions society places on people – superego punishes the ego (creating feelings of shame or guilt) o Impulse to hit someone (id) is not socially appropriate, so superego would strive for restraint - Freud believed personality develops through a series of childhood stage where id becomes focused on distinct zones of body - Fixation: energies remain focused on a particular stage or activity without progress o If there are conflicts that remain unresolved at a stage, fixation can occur - Defense Mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with the int
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