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Lecture 4

Week 4 - Major Theories of Developmental Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 100
Professor
Jill L Atkinson
Semester
Winter

Description
Week 4 : Major Theories of Developmental Psychology (more or less copied from ppt after erikson)  All we can do is make associations and we learn from them, eg. Rewarded or punished for something  John Watson`s quote – focused on child development the most – can turn them into anything as long as they are of an average or normal intelligence by reinforcing their behaviour  Little Albert experiment – Watson induced a really bad fear of anything white and fluffy into a child named Albert  Banged a gong anytime a white rabbit came up to him, become deathly afraid to a white fluffy hat of his mothers  Nobody tried to remove that fear of him and they let him into the world with that fear  Skinner – talked about development psychology  Two things that are vital in the upbringing of a child  Attention can be a powerful reinforce – eg. They are crying and you are paying attention it reinforces the crying and whining  Intermittent reinforcement (unpredictable) is the most resistance to extinction  Eg. You are at a supermarket and your child freaks out after you denying them a chocolate bar, you give it to them because you don’t want the attention from others such as workers  Bandura-bobo Doll experiment – name of two experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in studying aggression  Showed kids video of someone beating up an inflatable doll in a specific and predictable way and the partiicpants imitated the behaviour depending on if the model was rewarded or not  Social cognitive theory – arose from behaviourism and the importance of seeing whether others are rewarded or punished  Piaget’s Legacy – grandfather of cognitive development , first person to talk about how kids developed knowledge and how they interact with others in their world while testing them in a systematic way  Wrong about many things and right about many others – generated a lot of research  Huge impact on the field, but more on education than psychology  Constructivist Theory – kids learn better constructing and focusing on projects on their own interests as opposed to passively sitting there and absorbing info  Stage theorist – children/kids develop via stages and are very different in thinking on each stage (discontinuous) but their learning is a continuous process  Piagetian Processes  Assimilation – integrate new info into existing schemes (relating new theories to things they know about)  Accommodation – change schemes with new info  Equilibration – balances assimilation and accommodation, there is no discrepancy between their understanding of the world and experiences  At disequilibrium – the discrepancy is understood which leads to better understanding  Piagets’ “Stages”  Sensorimotor (Birth – 2 Years)  Tied to senses and motor ability  Can only think about what is occurring at the moment  Lack of object permanence – they don’t understand that objects do not continue to exist when hidden  Pre-operational thought (2-7 years)  not very logical, can only focus on 1 aspect of a problem at a time (eg. If you pour x volume of water from a cup into a larger or smaller container, they wouldn`t understand that it is still the same volume even though it appears smaller or larger)  very egocentric, only see things from their own perspective  not very good drawers but can do so simply, eg. Stick figures and car outlines  does not understand reversible processes  Concrete operational thought (7-12 years)  Can perform operations and understand reversible processes such as the water problem above  Their thought processes is still limited to tangible materials hence the name  Becomes less egocentric  Able to focus on two + aspects of a problem at once  Still stimulus bound, experiment must be done in front of them tangibly  Formal operational thought (12 years +)  can now begin to think and understand scientific and abstract thoughts, not longer limited to concrete processes  Ponder deep questions  Piaget thought universal, but really not  A-not-B error Sensorimotor Stage – key experiment done by Piaget  Toy is hidden within a container for the child and is fully visible to the child when the experiment is being done, in Hiding Place A  Then the toy is hidden in Hiding Place B  Child picks up cloth for A, but the child looks for B  Child knows its hidden in B as they look for it, but still picks up cloth for A in an illogical manner  Many factors can affect this experiment such as the delay of hiding, the number of times hid at A before being hidden at B or vice-versa and how far apart the hiding spaces are  Egocentrism – Preoperational Stage  Aka three mountain task – house on one mountain, a cross on the second and a huge
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