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periodic table trends.docx

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Ryerson University
CHY 104
Tsogbadral Galaabaatar

Properties of Group VI 1. Some are mono atomic and some are di-atomic. 2. Some of them exist in gaseous and some are in solid state. 3. Elements of this group have quite tendency to form compounds. 4. The tendency of forming covalent bond decreases from oxygen to polonium. 5. There is a gradual decrease in the ionization potential down the group. Group VII – The Halogen Family Elements of Group VII Fluorine Gas Chlorine Gas Bromine Liquid Iodine Solid Astatine Radioactive Properties of Group VII 1. They are diatomic except At. 2. Halogens are very active non-metals. 3. Outer most shell of these elements is incomplete having seven electrons. 4. Elements of this group are highly reactive. 5. There is a gradual decrease in the ionization potential down the group. Transition Elements Definition Elements in Group IB, IIB, through VIIB are known as Transition Elements because they show their properties which are transitional between higly reactive and strong electro-positive elements of S-block which form ionic compounds and p-block elements which form largely covalent compounds. Properties of Transition Elements 1. Transition Elements have incomplete inner electron shells. 2. They show variable valency. 3. They show similar behaviour. 4. They all are metals. 5. They have strong inner atomic bonds. Group 0, The Noble Gases The elements of Group VIII A are called “Noble Gases” or “Inert Gases” or “Zero Group Elements”. Elements of Group 0 Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon Properties of Group 0 1. They are mono atomic. 2. They exist in gaseous state. 3. Outer most shell of these elements is either complete or contains eight electrons. 4. These elements are mostly chemically non-reactive. 5. These elements have no tendency to form compounds (only a few of these compounds are known). Atomic Radius Definition One half of the distance between the nucleus of two identical atoms when these are in close contact with each other is called Atomic Radius. Unit It is measured in angstrom unit A. Trend in Period The atomic radii decreases from left to right within a period in the periodic table. This is because nuclear charge increases with the increase of atomic number. But the number of shells remains same within a period. Trend in Group Atomic radius increases from top to bottom in a group. This is because, although nuclear charge increases from top to bottom but at the same tim
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