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CRM 404 (1)
Lecture 2

CRM 404 Lecture Notes – Week 2.

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Ryerson University
CRM 404
Emily Van Der Meulen

CRM 404 Lecture – Week 2 CHINESE MIGRANTS (1858-1947) - A lot of Chinese men were migrating in towards Canada because of the Gold Rush. Mainland China at this time was largely farming communities and wasn't doing so well. A lot of them went to West Coast and British Columbia. - Gold rush dries up around 1870's and 17,000 Chinese workers made the CPR (1881-1885). John A. MacDonald was very endorsing of Chinese men to come over and fill out the labour shortage in order to build the railroad. - A lot of Chinese men volunteered to use explosives. They were also paid half the amount of non-Chinese workers. - ESTIMATES OF CHINESE DEATHS RANGE FROM 600 - 3500 over four years. --> The Chinese at the time were viewed as disposable labour, because they were paid very little and a lot of them would die whilst during the job. After railroad was built, Sir John A MacDonald put up the Electoral Franchise Act which barred Chinese people from voting. ----> Persons of Mongolian or Chinese race were not allowed to work. And this stayed on for 65 years until 1948. Chinese Immigration Act (1885) - Chinese Head Tax - "persons of Chinese origin are required to pay a $50 head tax upon entering Canada. In 1900, it rose to a $100. In 1904, it went up $500. This was one of the first example of taxation of the people by the government. It raised $23 million dollars and that was roughly the same cost to build the CPR. Chinese Exclusion Act (1923-1947) - At this point in time, Chinese people were outright barred from entering China. JAPANESE MIGRANTS - Barred from voting + holding office etc. (1895-1949) - If you were not the voter's list, then you couldn't hold many positions such as lawyer, politician, pharmacist, accountant. - Anti-Asian riot (1907) - major riot through downtown Vancouver. Smashing businesses, creating troubling and targeting Asian people at the time. - Canada sent the Minister of Labour to Japan and created an agree where Japan would restricted the number of labourers at the act. ----> Hayashi-Lemieux Agreement (1908) - Restrictions was that only 400 Japanese people were allowed to enter into Canada. In 1928, they dropped the number to 150. ---> World War II (1939-1945) - Dec 7, 1941, Pearl Harbour. War Measures Act is implemented - and through this act the government controls its citizens such as curfews. So all Japanese nationals including naturalized citizens had register in the Registrar of Enemy Aliens. After this Registrar, all sorts of Anti-Japanese racism and policies. The Japanese Fishing Vessel Disposal committee which resulted in Japanese fishermen to give away there boats to this committee. Japanese language newspapers and schools were closed out of fear that there might be communication between Japanese people. Insurance policies were ended, dusk-to-dawn curfew. Shortly after minister of justice administered that all persons of Japanese race were forced to leave the coastal areas. So BC initiated road-camps and work-camps for men. Women, children and elderly people were put into detention into ghost towns. Japanese men were sent to prisoner of war camp because they were considered to be of heightened threat as compared to Chinese Japanese cars and business, horses were sold @ a fraction of their costs and the money made from that were used to pay o
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