Crimes rates: what we know and how we know what we know. Effects of crime: on victims and the community. Mediaeval england: communal responsibility for maintaining social order tithings and juries. Later mediaeval and early modern england: constables and night watchmen. 1749: henry fielding and the bow st runners. 1829: sir robert peel and the metropolitan police act. Colo(cid:374)ial ca(cid:374)ada: (cid:272)o(cid:374)sta(cid:271)les (cid:894)e(cid:448)e(cid:374)tually (cid:271)e(cid:272)a(cid:373)e today"s (cid:373)u(cid:374)i(cid:272)ipal poli(cid:272)e ser(cid:448)i(cid:272)es(cid:895) 1873: the northwest mounted police: law and order as canada expands westward. 1919: the royal canadian mounted police: a national federal police service. Enforces federal statutes (includes criminal code only where no other police service has jurisdiction for that) Takes the place of provincial police everywhere except ontario, quebec, and parts of. Takes the place of municipal or first nations police in some places under contract. Enforce provincial laws and criminal code in places outside of municipal jurisdictions. Provides municipal policing in some places under contract.