Consists of multiple theories and different positions. The constitution (structure/make-up) of crime and laws. To explain crime and causes of crime. Circumstances and contexts of crime: economic, cultural, political, social. Think about responses to crime: punishment, (alternatives to) prison systems. Crime is a dynamic concept that changes over time and across cultures because the social and moral tolerability of certain conduct may change. Morals and values may shift rapidly overtime due to ethical pressures, public sentiment, economic and political changes. Crime is a guilty action or omission (neglect) illegal by law and is punished by the state. Violation of law and the social contract between the state and populations. Crime is not just a violation of laws. It isn"t just a deviation from moral and social standards. It is a labelling process within cultural and geopolitical contexts. Unequal power relations and structures of oppression such as capitalism, racism and sexism. Are tools of social control and moral/self-regulation.