Cultural appropriation – malicious?
Cultural appropriation – unthinking?
Negates history of colonialism, etc.
Negates current discrimination, etc.
Negates “edgy” on white women vs. mark of otherness
Promotes cultural stereotypes
Understanding, empathetic, and respectful
Understand the meaning, respectful
Put yourself in someone else’s shoes.
Significance of what youre incorporating. Does the item demonstrate violence,
How are women in fashion shown?
The western beauty ideal
Culturally created normative body (global). Not only in the western world
anymore, we see it in Europe, China, Japan, etc.
Requirements: 5’10”5’11”, size 02, age 1322, Caucasian, able bodied.
This excludes 95% women.
Models have been slimming overtime.
Personality is no longer an attribute to being a model.
Today the average model weighs 23% less than the average woman.
The ideal body is culturally and historically different
Charles worth hosted the first fashion show and his models were the women who
made the clothes in his factory
Balenciaga liked smaller, shorter models.
Peter Paul Ruben renaissance
1940’s=5‘s there were weight gain ads – to become more curvy, to be like
What is the meaning of only thin models? Power. Thin models are a symbol of
the cultural fear of female power. Keep women small – take up less space.
Naomi Wolf (wrote the beauty myth). The sliming of models coincides with
woman’s gains. By focusing energy on your appearance it allows you to not have
as much energy and time to other aspects of life – career, etc.
What are other representations of the exclusive use of femal thinness in
What is the impact of ultrathin models? Development of body dissatisfaction,
Anne Becker – went to Fiji in 1995 and TV was first introduced. Body confident
society – 0% girls had body dissatisfaction 1998 went back to Fiji 74% girls felt to big or fat and 62% started extreme
dieting in the past month
Models don’t cause negative body image or eating disorders but they have a
Why does the fashion industry hire ultra thin models?
brand designers want to create a distinction between luxury and mass, suppose to
represent someone more idealistic.
Distinguish their brands from mass fashion brands.
Macy’s, H&M want to seem accessible; YSL, Chanel, etc. don’t.
Gap between models and women fuels sales. By seeing a model that doesn’t look
like you will buy an outfit to try and look like the model
Something people can aspire to. Aspiration that you can never fulfill. Clear
Sample size – too expensive | Time crunch size 24
Sample size is small because making it big is too expensive. Smaller sample, the
less the cost.
Sample sales are often finished hours or minutes before the show.
Sample size conventions get locked in:
Learned in school
Mannequins in studio
Expected by industry and media that you will create samples size 2, 4 or 6.
Models at agencies
Would it make sense to show samples in different sizes to see them on different
Gay men are the decision makers in the industry
Ideal is a body that resembles a young man (boyish figure)
But masculine ideals vary widely – No single gay taste in appearance.
What do you think of these reasons? Are some justified? Could others be
Designers set ideals of beauty. Lagerfeld is bringing the ideals of beauty back
when Coco Chanel wanted to take them away.
Bodies are racially coded
WWII black models start making it to modeling and covers of magazines.
East Asian womana re on vogue paris for the first time in 2005
Vogue Italy in 2013
South Asian? Vogue india launched in October 2007 and there still hasn’t been an
indian woman in the western world. Models.com makes a list of the 50 top models and only 3 black and 6 asian – only
non Caucasian women represented.
White washing runways – jezebel counts
Try to track the number of non Caucasian models walking down the runway.
142 shows – 5,000 looks – 79.98% were worn by Caucasian models. 8.1% Asian
models, 8.8% black models, 3.19% latina models.
A white look with a touch of otherness.
Passing as whitecrossover appeal
Caucasian facial features, light skin
As radical a departure from whiteness as possible
Stand out – juxtapose white ness.
Diversity of east Asian women in fashion?
Tokenism – one non white woman in the group
The worlds next top models
What is the impact of tokenism?
1. Exception to the white models
2. One model is the symbolic standin for diversity
3. Trying to signal inclusiveness, but legitimizes exclusion
4. Obscures struggles of and naturalizes the difficulty for nonwhite models.
Vogues Black Issue tokenistic or inclusive?
The most sold. Vogue Italia celebrating.
Why separate coverage of black models?
Separate but equal, the intrinsic message of vogue black, is a historical concept all
too familiar to black people, especially in America. Images of water fountains
labeled “white” and “