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GEO 106 (117)
Lecture

Chapter 6.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GEO 106
Professor
Abednego Aryee
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Time Space and Time-Space  Time as well as spacep  The organization of time  The arrow of time  Time-space totalty  Time-space Prisms  Time-space paths  Contrains in the on time-space The organization of time - Used to d onecessry things suh as eating, personal hygiene, sleeping and working - It’s not something you can change and it is often fix Discretionary time - Used for things which you can choose to do or not to do, such as recreational activities  About two thirds of your time is spent doing obligatory acitvities.  Time is a fixed quantity: rich or poor we can’t “make” more time, only reallocate the fixed 24 hour amount to better suit our purposes  However ability to re-allocate the fixed quality of time depends on great deal on our demographic, economic and social circumstances, and state in the life cycle The orgniazation of time over time  Amounts of disreationary and obgliatory time change over historical time and over the life cycle  Workweek length for most ppl in most countires today is between 35 and 48 hours. Circa 1900 it was between 45 and 60 hours. But as economic conditions change: - Workweek and workday getting longer - Vacation legnths getting shorter - Early retirement disappearing - Serial career, contract work and multiple jobs becoming the norm - Some accommodation to flextime happening. The arrow of time - Space controls what we can d othrough the friction of distance as manifest in distance decay - Time also controls what we do through direction and quantity - Direction is called the arrow of time-that is you cannot move backwards or sideway or stay stationary in time as you can in space, but can only move ‘forwards’ quantity is the same for all - When coupled with space the arrow of time constrains “when” you can be “where” in space, and leads us to the related constructs of the time-space totality, tie space prisms and time-space paths Time flies but in which direcitons? While time only has one direction, different cultures also thing of time as hving an orientation  Westerners: “ here and now”, back in the 1970s’ going forwars, all linking the flow of time to spatial direction- the future stethes ahead an the past behind  Yupno of new Guinea: the future is downhill towars the local river’ mouth and the past is uphill toward its source  Aymara of the Andes: time flows front (future) to back (past)  Pormpuraaw of Australia: past lies to the east, the future to the west. Western conception of the time who said this? James Hutton - Present is the key to the past Time space diagrams, paths, cubes and prisim - We can organize time-space using time-space diagrms comprised of paths and prisims  Diagrams - Are comprised of a horizaontal space axis and a vertical itime acisi  Paths - Are particular sets of actions undertaken in a time space diagram  Cubes - Conver the 2D diagrams and apts into more precise 3D time-space corpised of 2d space and 1 D time dimension  Prisms - How how muc of the diagram- how much the itme-space-is available to you given constraints - Time space prisms are elatic- once a person commits to one part of it the opposite parts are no longer available. Implications of time-space  Time is immutable- it moves at the same pace for every  Only spend can change the amount of space you can acess  More space = more potential opportunities  More resources (e.g money) = more options for speeding up.  Improved technology ( e.g. roads/vehicles) = improved speed, but…..  More traffic= decreased speed.  More knowledge of oppurtunities = better chance of getting them.  Better health- faster speeds and wider time-sapce prism  Too your or old= slower speeds and smaller T-S prisms Constraints on time-space  All events and envionrments are contained within the time-space totality and  That we can only acess a very small part of that toality called a time-space prism and  That evne within this prism we are restricted to a limited number of time-space paths, and thus  We are limited to quantity and quality of the envents and environment we can access Attribute limiataions  These are the social, economic, ultural, demographic, capability, intellectural, political, congnitve and perceptual attriuutes of the individual that reflect the level of control that a person can exercise within time-sapce primsms  In large part these relate to cognitive filtering and Temporal Limitations  that regardless of attribute limitations, there are “arrow of time” contraints on the use of space( i.e. even extremely wealthy people only have 25 hours in a day)  this leads to…. Spatial limitation  these relate to distance decay and when connected with the arrow of time give us:  The domestic activity system, in and around the home where distance decay is not a factor, but the arrow of time is  The community activity system, beyond home base where both distance decay and the arrow of time are constraint Choice based limitaitons  Time, space and choice are governed by the type of events in which you have to, or want to ,participate. These are: 1. Events that are obligatory, and 2. Events that are discretionary Imortatn points:  Even the wealthy and educated with potentially large prisms may be severely constrained by lack of discretionary time or good health, ..  Whereas the unemployed with smaller primsms may have plenty of both  Yet both groups still have the same 24 hours in a day and the same laws to obey  And mostly the same constraints to follow Types of constraints on time-sapce  Capacity constraints - The size of the time-space prim itself  Capability contrinst - Our level of mobility and accesbility  Coupling constraints - Our ability to connect opportunities ( the arrow of time  Control (authority) constraitns: who gate keeps the opportutieis Oct 28 Interaction  Defining spatial interaction  The roles of spatial interaction  The Uil
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