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GEO 106
Philip Coppack

Geography- studies human and environment Pattison four “Traditions” 1. The Spatial Tradition nature of location, space, distance, direction and orientation of human and environment they function in - explain general patterns of human settlement and behavior 2. Area Studies Tradition differentiating region or places based on given set of attributes - describes unique attributes of places 3. Human- Land Traditions how humans affect environment and vice versa - interrelationships 4. Earth Studies Tradition physical processes that constitute the planet (atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere) Cultural relativity states the truths are relative and based on an individual interpretation of situation facts observations - compares what we know or expect to be with what we perceive Cognitive Filters any situation we perceive is filtered by each of our preconceived sets of suppositions by our cultural biases and demographic attributes, personality to give diff interpretations of what we see - ability to learn and integrate new concepts and constructs REAL WORLD personality, geodemographics, ability, socio-economic, culture (filters) you and me us Research Praxis answer the who, what, where, when, why and how First four are descriptive, and last two are explanatory - influenced by relativity describe- explain- predict- prescribe Normative looking for the norms in your research Space, Location, Place Spaceextent on the earths surface; ―concrete‖, surface of the earth with all its complexities - distance and direction are imp. Location a point in space Concrete Space—descriptive Abstract prescribing how things should be and for developing norm models Distance spatial dimension of separation, barrier to interaction - measured in the friction of distance - objectively absolute distance; measured in standard units (KM, CM); symmetrical - subjectively relative distance, not always symmetry measured by time, effort, dollar cost (driving during rush hour) Distance decay most fundamental of spatial construct ; I ij= PiPj / dij^2 Five Distances 1. Linear straight line 2. Time travel time 3. Cognitive perception of travel( too far) 4. Cultural separation b/w you and others due to ethnic, social class 5. Social physical distance b/w people during interactions Direction position of two places or objects in space - absolute: with reference to specific coordinate system like longitude and latitude - relative: ―north east, south west, east Asia‖ - shortest distance on a map Great Circle Mercator projectionStraight lines are lines of constant compass bearing but they are not Great Circle (shortest distance routes); allow direction Location particular position within space Absolute longitude and latitude with coordinates (43 degrees north) Relative respect to other locations (Toronto is closer to Mississauga than Buffalo); connectedness and accessibility Side characteristics characteristics related to absolute location (soil fertility, size of building) Situation Characteristics relative location; close to a market, near a highway Place- position with a unique set of attributes; in spa
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