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Lecture 10

GEO 609 Lecture 10: GEO609 WEEK 10A FRIDAY MARCH17TH

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Ryerson University
GEO 609
Jeanne Maurer

World cities & climate change Articles to Focus on: * P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe, 2015a, "Human Control of Climate: Introducing Cities", Research Bulletin #446, GaWC Study Group and Network Research Bulletins. * P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe, 2015b, "A Trans-modern Understanding of Anthropogenic Climate Change through Cities", Research Bulletin #447, GaWC Study Group and Network Research Bulletins. * P.J. Taylor, G. O'Brien and P. O'Keefe, 2015c, "Ten Antitheses on Cities and States: Challenging the Mindscape of Chronology and Chorography in Anthropogenic Climate Change", Research Bulletin #448, GaWC Study Group and Network Research Bulletins. We don’t have to understand the arguments to this degree From article 2: [] • Rio 1992  conference on global sustainability; the first international conference that the world ever held on actual sustainability ➢ Came out on the report published in 1987 (world commission… development) ➢ Came together in 1983/1984 to put into the movement of environmental awareness globally on what we’re doing to the planet (climate change) • Then Kyoto protocol in 1977? And understanding in regards to greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) and methane etc. ➢ Regionally and nation based to reduce green house emissions ➢ Notion of regional contribution to climate change via green house gas emissions ➢ Our obsession with growth (GDP etc.) can have an impact on • The argument is a trending argument that people are starting to make of “if it weren’t for cities, then all these farms in rural areas wouldn’t exist” so it’s countering the “chicken or the egg first?” ➢ Look at the demands and consumption (and requirements) of cities ➢ 82% of Canada lives in cities and we’re essentially the ones pushing climate change ▪ We’re not producing anything but we’re demanding it (consider service based economy) ➢ It argues against the decoupling of world cities from their traditional regions ➢ Global trade & hyper capitalism to have everything around the world available to all the world cities inhabitants, it’s necessary for world cities to persist and be sustainable (global reach of commodities, natural resources & other products) ➢ Cities are absent from this discussion (about sustainable cities) ➢ The larger the city, the more self-sufficiency • Extra local dependence (Janelle) and decreases our local consumption (retailer, supplier) and physically going to a bricks and mortar store • [like adjacent tax adjustment] we own the property, and then a condo is built nearby a house, our residential tax is recalculated to agree with the taxes that the condos are paying Article 3 [] • Spatial relationship • If you believe the modern thesis, then we’re really screwed [vs antithesis] because there’s trouble on what we have control over Modern thesis. Transformative material change is engineered through states because they are the prime units of collective human activity Antithesis. Collective human activity is generated in and through cities and therefore they are the critical entities that create transformative material change Modern thesis. The state evolved out of chiefdoms, as the latter became increasing complex they generated additional political functions that culminated in state formation Antithesis. The dense peopling of cities generated conflict and the consequent demand for order was satisfied by inventing city-states, warfare amongst the latter created multi-city states (new territorial states, empires) by conquest • Cities are the generators to protect themselves. Once the walls weren’t good enough of having walls around your city (Europe), you needed a wider/broader territorial security Modern thesis. Cities are outcomes of general social forces that have created places of dense activity we call urbanization Antithesis. Cities are process, constellations of myriad urban networks that are the general social forces • Hall & the polycentric world city Modern thesis. First there was an agricultural revolution and when this evolved sufficiently to create material surplus to support city work, there was a consequent urban revolution Antithesis. Cities are very demanding not least for food, and agriculture was developed to meet this demand • This is the way we understand the industrial revolution because people were leaving the industrial areas so technology were developed to cultivate
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