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Lecture 6

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GEO 802
Abednego Aryee

Lecture 6 – Sustainable tourism and leisure  Sustainable tourism – (defn. of UN convention) Meeting the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.  Development of tourism is done on cost of other sectors  Different beliefs of sustainability o Oxymoron o Anthropocentric  Bio centric  Eco centric  Sustainable tourism development is the optimal use of natural and cultural resources for national development on equitable and self-sustaining bases to provide a unique physical experience and an improved quality of life through partnership among government private sector and communities. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND LEISURE 1 )Economic factors – too many tourist so demand for basic commodities is high so there is an increase the price of basic commodities 2 ) tourism competes with other sectors for essential resources like land, labour, and goods and services a. A phenomenon known as brain drain – loss of opportunities for a good productivity in the country side b. Loss of opportunity for govt to raise tax revenue, also loos of productivity in the origin because of people leaving for tourism – creates creative destruction (eg. In rural areas – resorts are build) c. Loss of opportunity For investment d. In the destination (rural ppl leaving to urban areas) – there is an opportunity for glut labour- lack of jobs. i. To overcome the glut labour- Create ethnic tourism in rural areas, limit the number of tourist in an area, ii. When there is oversupply of labour and lack of jobs – retraining programs/ skill development program to improve the knowledge of local ppl iii. Also creating of more job opportunity – newer jobs ( eg. Greener development) - Airline industry is responsible for the greater amount of air pollution and its constant release of CFCs, CO2, NO2, etc. into the atmosphere. These gases contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming o Ways to regulate this – hub and spokes (move bigger aircraft to central destinations and use smaller aircraft for other destinations o Public transport which runs on ethanol( some alternative for busses run on fuel cells or solar energy) - Destruction of bio diversity on from extreme activities of hunting, fishing and development (tourism promotes sport fishing) 3 ) Socio- cultural factors Achievement to sustainability - Input approach to sustainability are use of renewable resources like wild life and fishes or water should be in rate or amount that allow system in no time to replenish itself - Output approach to sustainable development which requires the emission of waste co2 no2 petro chemical products and other human wastes that should be in rates or amount that will allow the receiving bio-physical system enough time to neutralize the disperse and dissipate, biodegrade or breakdown. - Assimilative capacity – of natural systems( if you keep growing garbage that is not bio-degrade then we will have an over accumulation which will cause environmental problems) a. - Ways in which leisure and tourism development infringes Rights, values and belief system of local ppls - Commodification of culture resources and facilities - To preserve the culture from extinction – o Should there be a law to drive tourist away?  Eg. dressing in local clothing  Eg. If there is a forest etiquette – you need to follow and respect the wildlife - Carying capacity – max level if recreational use of activities - Social carrying – can also affect the host community If the level of tolerance is exceeded there is potential for irritation or hostility – eg. Host community can be affected by too many tourist. SLIDE 2 - Social factors that can determine the extent of the carrying capacity: - Local factors: o Social structure – of the destination is vital in determining the scale and nature of tourist impact ( eg. NY, US vs. London in UK – highly diversified in economic activities – Apia, western Samoa or Bhutan) - what type of social structure between the small communities and bigger community –  NY- nuclear famiy and extended family in smaller communities( are easily affected by tourism)  Nature of tourist influences – a small popln 200 000 in summer 1 mill. Tourist arriving – great impact  But if the 1 mill is spread over time – the nature of impact would be very small – o Cultural heritage – is imp. In determining the impact on social carrying capacity – the more unusual the cultural background of destination areas, the more attractive the destination will become to potential tourist  Ironically the more unusual the cultural traditions are the greater a likelihood of adverse impact on the social cultural attractions. We see that in areas of demonstration effect ( means- rural ppl –used to dress in comfortable or traditional clothing – begin to change the taste and preference with the influence of tourist – western cultures)  Stage authencity – activities are made more colourful or very dramatic to appeal to tourist and loose their cultural meanings also resort to global commercialization of tradition o Environment
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