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GMS401 - Chapter 6.docx

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Sam Lampropoulos

C HAPTER 6: PROCESS DESIGN AND F ACILITY L AYOUT Introduction and Process Types Process Design determines the form and function of how production of goods or services is to occur. Implications for layout, equipment, design of the work system.  Occur due to new products and technological change with the equipment / methods improvement Make or buy is the first step in design in regards to some or all of a product / segment of the production process  Based on existing or desired core capabilities. Factors include: Available capacity, quality, demand steady or temporary, the secrecy of technology and cost Processes are classified into for basic types: 1. Job Shop a process type used when a low quantity of high-variety customized goods or services is needed Intermittent  High flexibility of equipment and skilled workers.  Challenge is to schedule the jobs so that the due dates are met and resources utilized  Batch a type of process used when a moderate volume of variety of goods or services is desired  Skill level does not need to be as high as Job Shop due to less variety in line where parts are jobs  Challenge is scheduling batches n order to meet planned production and demand while utilizing resources at high level. Capacity issues technology management are more important than in job shop  Examples: Movie theatres, airlines 3. Repetitive Process a type of process used when higher quantities of more standardized goods or services are needed  High volumes of standardized goods  Skill of workers is generally low, only slight flexibility of equipment needed  Production Line a sequence of machines/workstations that perform operations on a part/product  Assembly Line A production line where parts are added to a product sequentially  Challenge production/assembly are capacity balance, technology management, quality and material management  Machine process is a fixed speed and human process is variable speed 4. Continuous Process Used when a high volume of highly standardized output is required  Product usually continuous and cannot be counted  Examples: sugar, salt, paper, steel, utilities and the Internet C HAPTER 6: ROCESS D ESIGN AND FACILITY L AYOUT  Challenges involve the same as in assembly line but greater care for automated control of flow, and start / stop of production is more challenging Automation pg. 174 Automation using machinery/equipment with sensing and control devices that enabled it to operate automatically  Advantages: Low variability can be difficult for humans to perform task exactly the same way multiple times. Machines do not get distracted, injured, strike or file labor grievances  Disadvantages: Costly, usually requires high volumes of output to offset high initial costs. Once a process has been automated it is difficult to change. Adverse effects on morale and productivity. Fixed Automation is most rigid, uses high-cost specialized equipment for fixed sequence of operations. Low unit costs and high volume with minimal variety. Limited by high costs of making major changes. Programmable Automation high cost, general-purpose equipment that is controlled by a computer system. Sequence of operations and specific details about each operation. Produce wide variety of low-volume products in small batches  Numerically Controlled (N/C) Machines Best used for small batches, complex geometry, regular changes and costly mistakes. Programmed to follow sequence of processing instructions based on mathematical relationships. Instructions stored on a device. New machines may have their individual computer Computerized Number Control (CNC). Or, one computer might control multiple N/C machines Direct Numerical Control (DNC).  Robot Machine consisting of: mechanical arm, power supply and controller. 1. At lowest level are robots that follow fixed set of instructions. 3. Programmable robots, which can repeat a set of movements. 3. Then, robots that follow instructions from computer. 4. Finally, robots that can recognize objects and make independent decisions. C HAPTER 6: PROCESS DESIGN AND F ACILITY L AYOUT Flexible Automation evolved from programmable automations, with more customized equipment and greater programmable automation. Flexible automation requires much less changeover time. Allows almost continuous operations and product variety without producing batches  Machining Centers is a machine capable of performing a variety of operations on parts, numerically controlled (CAD/CAM)  Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) group of machining centers controlled by a computer, automatic material handling and robots. Able to produce variety of similar products. Handle intermittent processing, offers reduced labor cost and consistent quality. Lower capital investment and higher flexibility. Appeals to managers who want to achieve flexibility of job shop and productivity of repetitive process. o Limitations: handle narrow range, must be used for similar parts. Requires longer planning / development. Depends greatly on variety and quality.  Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) a system for linking a broad range of manufacturing and other activities through an integrating computer system. CIM integrates information from the organization with manufacturing. Goal is to achieve rapid response to customer orders / product changes,
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