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HST 501 Lecture Notes - P. G. T. Beauregard, Fort Pickens, William Rosecrans

Course Code
HST 501
Peter Wronski

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Lecture 6 (Civil war 1861)
Fort Sumter1865
- Roger Anderson was the commander of the fort
- Occupied by union troops in south Carolina
- Running out of supplies (Scott can’t help them and recommends surrender)
o Seward tells South behind Lincolns back that Sumter will be evacuated
o Seward says US should seize Canada instead of South
o Fort is taken by confederates and union begins to build their army
Winfield Scott
- Longest time as Union Military commander
- Knew he was unable to go into battle, passed position to Irvin McDowell
- Made the anaconda plan
Montgomery Blair
- Supports Fox`s idea
- Rest of cabinet oppose idea because they don`t want to anger south
Gustavus Fox
- Blair’s brother in-law, naval officer
- Has a plan for 2 tugboats to resupply Sumter
Seward's “two supreme illusions”
1. Lincoln is weak and an idiot and Seward should be president
2. Southerners would be happy with the abandonment for Sumter and then return to the
Fort Pickens
- Occupied by union in Florida
- one of the few Southern forts to remain in Union hands throughout the Civil War
Ramsdell Thesis
- Who started the war North or South
- Lincoln manoeuvred union to get confederates to fire the first shot
Braxton Bragg
- Confederate general , was going to fight against fort Pickens
o Jefferson Davis tell Bragg to attack Pickens only if he can guarantee success
o He can’t so he backs down and Lincoln tells Davis he wants to resupply Pickens
- Union most powerful ship, sent to Pickens
o Seward tells Lincoln not to tell head of navy they sent Powhatan to Pickens because he
thought confederate navy officers would be angered
o Head of navy at Sumter orders Powhatan to fight at Sumter but it’s already headed to
o Seward apologises and blames mix-up on Lincoln
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (confederate)
- Demandes Anderson to surrender fort Sumter
- He taught Anderson at Westpoint
- Was given orders to fire on Sumter and the war began

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- Union ships were here and Union burned them so that confederates couldn’t get them but
they only burnt the mast and not the hull
Harpers Ferry – west Virginia
- Produced many rifles
- Union tried to destroy factory but the rebels got the machinery
US Military Academy at West Point
- In New York, engineering school, congressmen must elect you in
- Teachers fought students from this school
“The Goat”
- The immortal who graduates
- Gets $1 from everyone
"The Immortals"
- Worst student with worst grades at WestPoint
- Best group become engineers then artillery then worst get cavalry
Thomas Jonathan Jackson (stonewall) b.1824
- Born 1824 raised by uncle, uneducated, struggled at WestPoint with academics and
- Assigned as artillery officer during Mexican war
- Met Robert Lee in Mexico
- Aka “Blue light”, very religious
- Hated and feared but respected by his troops
- Got name stonewall at first battle of bull run
- Own men shot him at Chancellorsville but he survived (amputated arm)
- After war became a professor
- Command at Harpers Ferry
- Wanted to stop union railroad transportation. Cant so he complains they are too
loud and they are only allowed to pas at certain times
- Once Virginia succeeds he stops all trains from leaving
B&O Railway (Baltimore Ohio) – passed through Harpers Ferry
Great Train Raid of 1861
- Jackson’s operations against the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1861 were aimed at
disrupting a critical railroad used by the opposing Union Army as a major supply route
and capturing the maximum number of locomotives and cars
George B. McClellan (democrat)
- Leads attack against Harpers Ferry against Jackson
- Went to law school at 13
- At 15 went to WestPoint, Invents McClellan sattle
- Graduates 2nd same time as Jackson
- Leaves army to become president of Railroad company
- Join federal army again and becomes major general
- Didn’t do anything near Richmond (Virginia Creeper)
- In march Lincoln fires him but he is still in charge of army of Potomac
West Virginia Mountain Campaign

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Robert S. Garnett
- Confederate, sent by lee to Rich mountain to set up camp
- the first general officer killed in the Civil War
3 victories of McClellan
1. "Races at Philippi"
- Mrs. Humphrey sees union troops near her house
- She sends her son to warn people in Philippi that union soldiers are coming to attack
- Soldiers stop her son, she fights them off to get him back on his horse, she fires a gun and
union troops think the war began so they fired on Philippi and confederates run away and
union win this “battle”
2. Battle of Rich Mountain
- First time McClelland is about to go into battle and gets cold feet
- Is worried Garnett’s army is too big
- McClellan is supposed to attack when he hears guns from Rosecrans attack.
- Rosecrans goes around and attacks from the side of the mountain
- hears guns later than expected but does nothing, he is confused
- Rosecrans destroys guns and sees less confederates then expected so he thinks that
McClelland is being destroyed so he turns around just before he wins
- Rosecrans and McClellan meet up and realise he didn’t lose and they chase confederates
to Corricks Ford where they kill Garnett
William Rosecrans
- Union
- finds hidden passage to go across mountain and attack Garnett from behind while
McClellan attacks from the front
- Took longer than expected
- Confederates intercept message and find out plan but misinterpret which mountain
3. Corricks Ford
- McCellan had defeated part of Garnett's force at the Battle of Rich Mountain. On hearing
of the defeat, Garnett fell back toward Virginia
- kept attacking to delay the union army as the confederates retreated where he was killed
Baltimore Riots 1861
- Baltimore hates union
- Baltimore mobs attack union troops
- Confederates are arrested and Maryland votes neutral for the war
- Lincoln ignores supreme court and suspends Habeas Corpus in Maryland
- Lincoln wants to arrest Justice Taney because he says president can’t eliminate Habeas
Missouri (North control)
- Guerrilla war North vs South – Jesse James
- Becomes neutral and Lincoln leaves it
- Next election it becomes a union state
Lecture 7
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