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WWI- Further Developments.docx

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HST 111
Maria Piccioni

WWI: Further Developments - deadlock on land meant that the control of the seas became more important – the British ignored the distinction between war supplies and food/other cargo – the policy was intended to starve Germany – Germany responded with submarine/u-boat warfare – Declared the waters around Britain to be a ‘war zone’ – neutral ships could be attacked – *May 1915 Lusitania sunk by the Germans* (also carrying war supplies/munitions to the British) – British ship- over 1200 killed; 118 Americans - U.S. President Woodrow Wilson ‘warned’ Germany that any subsequent American deaths would not be tolerated – Germany desisted from attacking US ships - By 1917, Germany was in a dire situation – Feb 1, 1917, Germany announced a policy of “unrestricted submarine warfare” - USA broke off diplomatic relations – April 6, 1917 USA declared war on the Central Powers - The American involvement in WWI was influenced by the sinking of the Lusitania, the German policy of “unrestricted u-boat warfare, and the removal of Russia from Allies” - March 1917 – begins the Russian revolution, overthrew the tsarist government – ‘March Revolution’ – caused by a number of factors – troop mobilization was slow, food shortages, soldiers poorly supplied – by the end of 1917 – over 2 million Russians dead – in September 1915, Tsar Nicholas took supreme command of the Russian military – failures resulted – suspicion that Nick was under the influence of Rasputin – domestic problems – hunger, food shortages, strikes, etc… – in 1916, the DUMA (legislature of Russia) was terminated – Tsar Nick to rule unilaterally – by March 1917, Russia was ripe for revolution - in early March 1917, strikes and worker demonstrations occurred in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) – spread to the factories and army – troops abandoned the front and went home - sympathetic to the people, and ill disciplined, the Russian army to refuse to take action against t
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