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Lecture 3

HST702 - Lecture 3 Crisis in the Balkans

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HST 702
Tomaz Jardim

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HST702 September 11, 2013 Tomaz Jardim Crisis in the Balkans - 28 June 1914: archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne get shot by an assassin o Spark that started WWI - Relations between the two power block of states in Europe were strained o Imperialism and the attempt to expand the bound of power  Africa completely occupied and taken by states of Europe - Arms race o If one wanted to be great and build a global empire, a bug powerful navy/army is needed o Size of navies and armies doubled in a short amount of time o Germany looking for its place in the sun - Germans began building ships at an alarming rate o British uneasy about growing strength of Germany o Faced challenge in preserving supremacy o British ready to do whatever it takes to stay on top o British create the Dreadnought in response to the naval race against Germany - Europe was a tense place before 1914, especially as Europe had divided itself into 2 rival alliances o Triple Entente - Great Britain, France, Russia o Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy - A lot of talk of war at the beginning of the 20th century o Fear of a war with Germany had filtered down into British consciousness o The Riddle of the Sands - fictional German invasion of Britain - Increasing posturing for war taking place in Britain - 1913: Count Helmuth von Moltke writes to Austrian counterpart o A European war is bound to occur sooner or later - Militarism was at its peak - Relationships between the states of Europe were very strained - Balkans = south eastern Europe - Turkey was the last hub of the Ottoman Empire o Ottoman Empire had been very large and the Ottomans had occupied the Balkan region o In the late 1870s, the Ottomans are pushed out of Southeastern Europe o Austria-Hungary, Russia and Serbia muscling each other to occupy the Balkan region  Serbia has a dream of uniting the Slavic population in Europe o Austro-Hungarians don't like the Serbians because they have a large Slavic population and they don't want to let go of it - 1908: Austro-Hungarians take over Bosnia so Serbia can't expand into Bosnia o Austro-Hungarians now have a lot of Slavic under their rule, and they don't want to be there o Bosnians thought they should be a part of Serbia because they spoke the same language/had the same culture o Bosnians want to break away o Austro-Hungarians scared that if Bosnians break away, all the other ethnic groups want to break way - Austria-Hungary had terrible relations with Serbians o Austro-Hungarians convinced the Serbians are egging on the Bosnians o Austro-Hungarians can't take over Serbia because of Russia so Austria- Hungary is pissed at Russia too - Terrorist group - The Black Hand o Want to destroy the authority of Austria Hungary o Want to break away from Austria-Hungary o Want to merge with Serbia or break away and create their own Slavic state - Little Bosnia o Hated Austro-Hungarian regime - June 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo o Perfect target for the rage of the terrorist groups o Ferdinand was a liberal minded conformer  Intended to institute liberal reforms  Wanted to give autonomy o Ferdinand was the Inspector General of the army, he was travelling in his military position, his wife Sophie was allowed to come along o Ferdinand planned to travel to Sarajevo to celebrate their anniversary - 28 June: the anniversary of the defeat of the Serbs by the Turks o National day for Serbs to think about their past o Still burying the burden of their imperial rule o Something tactless about Ferdinand coming t
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