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Lecture 11

HST702 - Lecture 11 The Russian Revolution and New Hope for Germany.docx

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Ryerson University
HST 702
Tomaz Jardim

HST702 November 13, 2013 Tomaz Jardim The Russian Revolution and New Hope for Germany 1 - The Revolution of 1905 - The rise of socialism - Unlike in other states, socialist movements and parties are illegal - The socialist movements that grow in Russia become inherently revolutionary and terroristic  Because of the lack of political outlets  Because they're forced underground - Socialist groups advocate terrorism o Bloody Sunday, the Duma and short-lived reform - The first revolution (1905) was a result of a humiliating war (against Japan) - State panics, massacres protestors (Bloody Sunday) - Tsar Nicholas says he will give civil rights to more people  Wants to create parliament (Duma) - As soon as revolutionary threat has past, he takes everything back, doesn't listen to the Duma - When the war starts, it's still an autocracy - When things go well, the dictator can take all of the credit, but when things go wrong, the dictator is blamed  Tsar Nicholas blamed for outcome of war because he takes personal charge of armed forces  The war does not go well for Russia - Majority of Russians are still peasants  They were unhappy because of way due to the conditions they live in  Their food was cut off for the war - Workers had miserable conditions before the war 2 - Unrest and the End of the Romanov Era o Rasputin and the Tsarina - Tsarina Alexandra  No one likes her  She sits in the capital  Because of inbreeding, her kids have hemophilia - Gregory Rasputin  Siberian faith healer  Claims he has psychic/mystical powers  Says he has the power to cure Tsarina's son  Supposedly cures the kid, and sticks around for some reason  Some people believe him, but others are like wtf - Alexandra under Rasputin's spell  He uses this influence over the family to become their political advisor  He tells Tsar Nicholas to take charge of the armed forces - A group of nobles decide that Rasputin has to be taken out first  Apparently he wrote a net a few weeks before he died in which he warns the Tsar of what will happen when he dies 3 - The February Revolution (March 1917) o Petrograd and the Birth of the Soviets - Strikes break out in response to circumstances of the war (food shortages) - A group of working class women change the course of Russian history and WWI - St Petersburg had introduced rationing - Women were in war industry factories all day and then had to line up for rations - Women got angry and aggressive - 8 march 1917, 10,000 women march in St Petersburg  "Peach and bread", "down with the autocracy" - Women manage to call a general strike, 10th march, all factories in St Petersburg shut down - Tsarina says it's no big deal - Tsar orders troops to dicers crows when they keep growing  Troops initially follow orders - Troops who were brought in to clear crowds realize they have more in common with protestors and join protests - Tsar forbids parliament to meet, but they meet anyway during these protests  They declare they are the only government of Russia and they will be calling the shots - 4 days after women start protesting, he abdicates the throne (March 12, 1917) - The Duma isn’t the only source of power after the fall of Nicholas because they have to deal with the Soviets - Soviets are organized groups of workers (councils)  Hold authority over their workers  Influenced by radical socialism 4 - The Bolsheviks and the Rise of Lenin - Bolsheviks trying to gain power over the Soviets  Led by Lenin  Becomes a dedicated opponent of a Tsarist regime when his brother is executed  Searches for a revolutionary creed  Moves to St Petersburg and forms the Union for the Liberation of the Working Class  Is arrested, sent to Siberia and exiled to Switzerland  Lenin believes a revolution is possible after the fall of the Tsar  He’s unwanted in Russia because he's a revolutionary o The Meddling of the German High Command - Hindenburg, Kaiser Wilhelm II and Ludendorff are in Russia and thankful that Russia is collapsing from within  Scheme to send Lenin back to Russia so Russia would destroy itself  Against everything Lenin believes but they want Russia to be destroyed o The April Theses - Lenin arrives on April 3 - 20 April, Lenin lays out his blueprint for the revolution - Wants to empower the workers - They key to the revolution is the Soviets (workers are already organized) - All that needs to be done is setting up a sociali
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