Chapter 5 itm.docx

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Information Technology Management
ITM 100
Vikraman Baskaran

Chapter 5 -IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies IT infrastructure • The shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information system applications. • Includes investment in hardware, software, and services, such as consulting, education, and training. • Defining IT infrastructure: • Set of physical devices and software required to operate enterprise Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution • Moore’s Law and microprocessing power • The Law of Mass Digital Storage • Metcalfe’s Law and network economics • Declining communications costs and the Internet • Standards and network effects Moore’s law and microprocessing power Has been interpreted as: • The power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months • Computing power doubles every 18 months • The price of computing falls by half every 18 months Nanotechnology uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices The Law of Mass Digital Storage • The amount of digital information is roughly doubling every year • The cost of storage is falling at an exponential rate of 100 percent per year Metcalfe’s Law and Network Economics • The value of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network members Seven Major Components of IT Infrastructure 1. Computer Hardware Platforms 2. Operating System Platforms 3. Enterprise and Other Software Applications 4. Data Management and Storage 5. Networking/Telecommunications Platforms 6. Internet Platforms 7. Consulting and System Integration Services Computer Hardware Platforms • Client machines (desktops, laptops, and PDAs) • Server machines • Blade servers • Server Farms • Mainframes systems used as giant servers for enterprise networks and corporate Web sites Operating System Platforms • Microsoft Windows dominates the market of client machine software • Unix or Linux widely used as server software • Linux available as open-source software Enterprise Software Applications • Largest suppliers of enterprise software are • SAP • Oracle PeopleSoft (acquired by Oracle Data management and storage • Database software: IBM (DB2), Oracle, Microsoft (SQL Server), Sybase (Adaptive Server Enterprise), MySQL • Physical data storage: EMC Corp (large-scale systems), Seagate, Maxtor, Western Digital • Storage area networks (SANs): connect multiple storage devices on dedicated network Networking/Telecommunications Platforms • Leading network hardware providers are Cisco, Lucent, Nortel, and Juniper • Software leaders are Microsoft, Novell, Linux, and Unix • Service vendors include Bell Canada, Primus, and regional carriers • Growth of wireless and Voice over IP (VoIP) Consulting and system integration services • Even large firms do not have resources for full range of support for new, complex infrastructure • Software integration: ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systems • Legacy systems: older TPS created for mainframes that would be too costly to replace or redesign • Accenture, IBM Global Services, EDS, Infosys, Wipro Internet platforms • Hardware, software, management services to support company Web sites, (including Web hosting services) intranets, extranets • Internet hardware server market: Dell, HP/Compaq, IBM • Web development tools/suites: Microsoft (FrontPage, .NET) IBM (WebSphere) Sun (Java), independent software developers: Macromedia/Adobe, RealMedia The emerging mobile digital platform • Cell phones, smartphones (BlackBerry, iPhone) have assumed data transmission, Web surfing, e-mail and IM duties • Netbooks: small, low-cost lightweight notebooks optimized for wireless communication and core computing tasks Grid Computing • Involves connecting geographically remote computers into a single network capable of working in parallel on business problems that require short-term access to large computational capacity • Rather than purchase huge mainframes or super computers, firms can chain together thousands of smaller desktop clients into a single computing grid Cloud Computing and Computing Utility • Firms off-load peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centres • Firms pay only for the computing power they use, as with an electrical utility • Excellent for firms with spiked demand curves caused
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