PHL101 Lecture 8: 8
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Hating reason (misology)
Certes is a breath mint. Parmenides Heraclitus certes is a candy mint
•Semis argued that the body caused the soul to come to be
•Cabbies argued in exchange that the soul caused the body to come to be
Socrates as a student of natural science
•Cebes wants Socrates to prove to him that the soul is not like a battery, something
that doesn’t last a long time
Why is Socrates sitting in prison?
•… Because of the relationship between his bones, sinews, and skin
•…. Because he was found guilty of worshipping false gods and corrupting the
youth of Athens.
Exclusion of opposites argument
•“A” is taller than “B” but shorter than “C”
•The soul may outlast bodies or cloaks in general but may not outlast all bodies or
•To perish = to admit death
•Particulars seem to be tall or short
oTallness as a form cannot be short and shortness as a form can never be
oEquality is a form but inequality isn’t a form
The cycle of opposites argument is about particulars.
The exclusion of Opposites argument is about Opposites themselves (forms)
•Socrates said that snow and fire are particulars.
•BUT snow is not the opposite of fire and fire isn’t the opposite of snow
•BUT snow is the essence of Cold and both are not separate or seperatable
•The essence of fire is Hot, and is separate or inseperatable
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