PHL 201 - week 11 (april 1st).docx

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
Ryerson University
Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL 201
Page:
of 4
PHL 201
Monday April 1st
Rational Being Aristotle believed that Human beings were rational animals
He believed that we were different form God, because we are animals and God is not
o God is not a kid, animals yawn- animals yawn
o Animals are born, grow old, then die
o Human being are the most rational animals
o Excellent human - Virtue governs all of our actions acting reasonably in all
cases
o Most self sufficient able to take care of yourself
o Why is it good to be self-sufficient? you don’t have to depends on anyone
else. If one depends on anyone else, you cannot do what you want
o If you’re self-sufficient, you can do whatever you want
o The greatest impediment to freedom is lack of ability
o What is it about being able that makes you freer ? the world is made for
those who are able, they’re not at mercy as much a others
o EX: someone is very able with respect to the Piano; if you’re able, you can do
things people unable can’t; lets suppose both want to play piano, the able
person can, the other can’t. The ability of the person who can is free; the other
person is not free
o Unreliable
o Oppressors “the evil”- they’ll do what you want but harm you in the process
o Kind
An excellent life is one that is self-sufficient
Diversions toys, shopping, drinking, dances etc
o Problem - We would still be relying on others (for the toys)
o We are like the poor we need to be diverted, distracted
o Sally Horsefall she wants praise and honour, not diversions because she
was born with them
o Your life is in pursuit of honour how does that make you less self-sufficient ?
you need a cheering audience, giving you honour, but sometimes you get
“boo-ed” or might get tired of them
o Alternative live a life of virtue; happiness depends on having a virtuous
character
What is it that’s hard to change? The habits, which is the expression of
your character; if this is source of happiness, then you won’t want to
change
If you were to lose an arm if you are virtuous, you will be more
resourceful- you will handle misfortune better
A mark on your character
o You start to do something badly, you practice to get better at doing things
badly
o You start to do good things at young age, builds good character, by imitating
virtuous actions; you’re bad at it at first, then after about 6 months, it seems
odd to not be doing it it has become part of your character
o Becomes a habit you can do something without being forced, which means
you will do it over the long term, which will make you more virtuous, which
gives proficiency
o You are not virtuous if you don’t love it
o An evil person will do virtuous things, but only if he is forced, but will stop as
soon as he doesn’t have to anymore
o Proficiency love
o Ethos ethics study of
o Where do you practice these virtues?
Courage pleasure of saving your friends of mortal danger; EX:
soldiering
Justice about treating people fairly; EX: politics, by being a citizen
Wisdom knowing the value of things; EX: learn it in study
Temperance learn to treat them as they need to be treated; EX :
learn this as a parent
TUESDAY
Ethos good ethics
You require virtues for the love of them
A person who loves virtue to be virtuous
o This person is more likely to do it; we are more likely to do what we
love then do what we don’t love
o If you are virtuous, you will do virtuous things
o If you want your children to be virtuous, you’re going to teach them
good habits, by demonstrating, model good behaviour, require of your
children to absorb and act good
o They won’t be good right away, but they will get into the habit of doing
it; how do you do this? force them to do it, until they feel
uncomfortable NOT doing it anymore
o Why do parents want to treat their kids that no one loves them?
because they want to feel better about themselves
o What is guaranteed once that I get into the habit of something? you
will keep doing it
Outcome of constant task you come to like it, because you get
good at it, and we like the things we’re good at, you end up
being excellent at it
Means you’ll have to embrace difficulty, do things that don’t
come easy to you
What kind of things? Things that you thrive in
o 2 types of virtue
Intellectual virtues : virtues which produce knowledge, can be
mastered by way of instruction, and/or study
Social virtues: virtues that are habits; will allow you to be
excellent at interacting with others. Being excellent at treating
others well, and be treated well
The Greek had 4 virtues :
o Courage
o Justice
o Wisdom
o Temperance learn how to treat people as they should be treated
If virtuous people love virtuous things, vicious people love vice. They can’t tell
the difference between virtue and vice, they mix up virtue with vice, thinking
vice is virtue
Virtue according to Aristotle the Golden Mean
Golden middle ground between excess and deficiency
o Of what? Of action
o Courage : action? fearless action; example :
Excessively fearless not courageous at all, you’re reckless/ fool
Risk their life because they were “dared” to do it
Deficient in fearless action;
Cowardice where one saves one’s skin, when they could have
saved someone else
Courage you are courageous when you risk your life from mortal
danger; it’s not enough to do this to be virtuous, if you want to be
virtuous then you must do it for the pleasure of doing it
Example of fire fighters being dutiful because you are living up to
your responsibility, not reckless. Wouldn’t be foolhardy. It is a virtue,
but not courage. Fire fighters do it all the time, so they get excellent at
it
o Why is it excessive to save strangers but not for your friends? Because you
love your friends
If you are risking your life on strangers means you can lose your life,
and you owe your life to those friends who love you
Loving takes time, it’s about giving them what they need
You make a study of your friends so you can find out what they need
and give them what they need
It’s wrong to say I can love everybody, you don’t have time
FB friends you fall in love with people in the virtual world
o Aristotle Virtue is in the Mean, not in the excess
o Wisdom action belief
A man wanted to be wise and not make mistakes; so he believed in
nothing, believed no false statements, problem he didn’t believe
anything that was true
Made him deficient scepticism ; overly sceptical
Alternative? A man didn’t want to miss anything that was true,
so he believed everything - gullible, he believed things that
were untrue

Document Summary

Rational being aristotle believed that human beings were rational animals. You don"t have to depends on anyone else. The ability of the person who can is free; the other person is not free: unreliable , oppressors the evil - they"ll do what you want but harm you in the process, kind . An excellent life is one that is self-sufficient. You need a cheering audience, giving you honour, but sometimes you get. Boo-ed or might get tired of them: alternative live a life of virtue; happiness depends on having a virtuous character. The habits, which is the expression of your character; if this is source of happiness, then you won"t want to change. If you were to lose an arm if you are virtuous, you will be more resourceful- you will handle misfortune better. Courage pleasure of saving your friends of mortal danger; ex: soldiering. Justice about treating people fairly; ex: politics, by being a citizen.