PHL 553 Lecture Notes - Critical Role, Nous, Intentionality

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1 Feb 2013
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PHL 553 L2+tutorial
1/23/2013
Critques of natural attitude & positivism
positivism is the naive view that what is real is what is given of posited (positum)
social scientists who espouses positivism holds that the world that the world consists of
straightforward objects clearly defined behaviours, etc
positivists says: simply observe + record the facts as you see them
no interpretation is required
positivism completely ignores the critical role played by conscientiousness in constituting the
world
doxa-opinionated way of thinking
mere opinion
unquestioning
as such, positivism is actually bad science
husseral wanted to correct this misassumption in favour of science
Phenomenology
is the study of phenomena
study of how things appear to us (in process “happening” we need to carefully observe)
phainomenon (that which appears)
describe the happenings of this appearance
decriptive science of out experience
method
consists of two fundamental reductions (refocusing)
epochē (transcendental reduction)
break down natural standpoint
world is simply there independently of me
world stands outside of me filled w/ pregiven objects
shift your attention away from the object of experience to the experience itself
momentarily bracket the so-called real world\
epochē breaks down the habit of thinking how things must be, as opposed to how things
are actually given to us in experience
let the phenomena appear for itself
what is left after the epochē is conducted?
Simply a conscientiousness of something
perception of a tree
fear of a spider
desire for this chocolate ice cream
focus of the experience
now we're in the phenomenological zone!
Intentionality – directed at something
every act of conscienceness is always a consciousness of something, some 'x'
intentionality: every mental act is directed toward something
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