POL 128 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Classical Liberalism, Proxy War, Industrial Revolution

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POL128 Week 9
Ideology
Systematic and coherent set of ideas about society and the world
Ideologies require a bit of thought and takes time to come to an ideology (not an
opinion)
Can be empirical, but more often than not it is normative
Action oriented set of ideas
Political ideologies are belief systems that aim to kill the ills of society
Ideologies are almost like religions
How Ideology Works
1. Identifies a problem - e.g. poverty
2. Analyzes - why problem exists, how extensive
3. Solutions to problem - higher minimum wage, better access to education
Political Spectrum
Communism (far left) - social change & max equality, government controls all, no
individual rights, government intervention
Democratic Socialists - capitalism, private property, public-private ownership
Liberalism (least government intervention, middle) - individual rights, free trade, profits
= good
Conservatism - government should stay out of economy, but interfere with private lives
Nazism & Fascism (Far right) - no change & max inequality; government intervention,
manipulate people's way of thinking, economy and business remained in private but told
what to make by government, no individual rights
Three Major Ideologies:
1. Conservatism
a. Classical Conservatism
a.i. Monarchies
a.i. Lot of government control over monopolies
a.ii. Believe in the value of order
a.iii. People were persecuted for saying or doing the wrong thing under King
control
b. NEO conservatism
b.i. Or NEO liberalism
b.ii. Said the solution was to go back to pure capitalism
2. Liberalism
a. Liberalism is kind of an attack on conservatism
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b. "a government ruled by a king is not a legitimate government"
c. 1600s/1700s
d. Believe in the value of freedom
e. People should have political rights, personal rights, and economic rights
e.i. The right to practice what you want without being persecuted
e.ii. Freedom of expression
e.iii. Freedom of the press - getting information e.g. information about each
political party before voting
e.iv. Freedom of assembly - the right to protest against the government
e.v. Fundamental right to own private property and dispose of it in any way
you see fit
e.vi. Government should not interfere with the economy - businesses are
private property
e.vii. Idea of a free market - economy should be based on the laws of supply and
demand
f. Women rights, end of slavery, etc.
Classical Liberalism
a.i. Led to the rise of capitalism
a.ii. Supply and demand, trade, etc.
a.iii. 1800s
a.iv. Industrial revolution
New forms of power, new modes of making things, etc.
Make things by machine not by hands
Factories introduced - owners were filthy rich
Northwest of Britain is where it began
a.v. Capitalism is creative
Welfare Liberalism
a.vi. Rethinking of classical liberalism
a.vii. Came to the conclusion that they need to come up with a different
definition of freedom
Classical - free unless someone tells you what to do
E.g. a poor man is free because no one told him to be poor
a.viii. Needs to redefined into something more positive
New and Broader Definition: Ability or capacity to do things that
are worth doing
a.ix. This way of thinking became more popular
a.x. E.g. a poor man is not considered free because they don't have the freedom
to live where they desire or do what they want
a.xi. Government may have to play a role in increasing the levels of freedom in
society
a.xii. Progressive taxation - more income, more tax
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