PSY 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Encoding Specificity Principle, Sketchpad, Implicit Memory

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Personal Identity Through Change:
In a sense, we are like that shipthe vast majority of our physical selves gets
replaced over time
We (unlike the ship) even change radically in appearance
Mae its our pshologial seles that reai the sae, rather than the
physical stuff we are made of?
o Peoples persoalities do hage oer tie
o Ca ou thik of a oe harateristi of our persoalit that hast
or ouldt hage?
Without your memory, are you still you?
To a large extent, it is your memory that tells you who you are. Think about
the thigs that ake ou, ou…
o They are your relationships with others, your roles in society, the
plaes oue ee, ad thigs oue leared ad doe.
o There are, no doubt, some genetic contributions to personality (some
pre-dispositions to act in certain ways, governed by biology) that may
be retained if you lost your memory, but you would lose a large part
of what makes you, you.
Remembering over the short term
(1) Describe the difference between visual sensory memory and short-term memory
(STM) and explain how visual sensory memory is measured.
(2) Outline STM and describe the way material is stored in STM.
(3) Explain the role of rehearsal in maintaining information in STM and the speed
with which information is lost from STM without it.
(4) Describe what has been discovered about the limited capacity of STM and
explain how chunking can increase memory span.
Information-processing perspectives
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Sensory register-eor that doest lass ore tha a seod
o Where you get the sensory information
Stored in a raw form
o Pay attention to some parts of the sensory information
o Pull it into the short-term memory
Short-term memory- think about what you see (where you do your thinking)
o Start to assign meaning- start to create perceptions
Long-term memory- a reord that is stored i our rai, that ou dot hae
to think about
“perligs Whole report oditio.
Participants could report about 4 items.
Perhaps people only saw about 4 items?
However, participants reported a brief image of ALL the characters but they
felt like they only had time to report 4 before the others faded.
“perligs Partial ‘eport oditio.
A post-image cue signalled which row Ps should report.
Participants could report about 3 items from that row.
The Sensory Register contains all the items, but we can only fit some into
STM (by attending to them).
The Sensory Register (SR).
A large number of items (all items?) is at first represented in an unprocessed
form in the sensory register.
However, this memory quickly fades.
A limited number of items can be processed from this store and they become
represented in the capacity-limited STM.
The other items fade from the sensory register before they can be
transferred to STM. (These items are not encoded.)
How long does the sensory trace of information last in the sensory register?
If Sperligs post-image cue was delayed by more than about 1 second,
participants were not able to recall much from the cued row of letters.
We are not typically aware of the presence of the SR because its contents are
continually replaced, moment-by-moment, with incoming sensory
information.
Short-term memory: The mental workspace
We select some information from sensory memory to pay attention to. That
information is then transformed in STM from an unanalyzed form into a
meaningful representation.
In sensory memory, all that is present is raw information.
It needs to be processed to be meaningful
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Working memory
STM is closely related to the concept of orkig eor, eause it is i “TM
that work is done to transform the unprocessed information in the sensory store
into meaningful information. That information can be stored in one of two
forms:
(1) The phonological loop our ier oie,
(2) The visuospatial sketchpad our ids ee.
o Common mistakes based on sounds
o Rare mistakes based on the similarity of the way the letters look
Short-term forgetting
Information in STM needs to be mentally rehearsed, otherwise it rapidly
disappears.
If you are prevented from mental rehearsal, even small amounts of information
are lost.
The magic number; 7 +/- 2
Memory span is the largest number of items that can be recalled in exact order.
Typically, people are able to recall between 5 and 9 such items.
How much you can keep in STM depends on the speed with which you can
rehearse it.
at, dog, at, fish, goat, pig, ow
rhioeros, hipazee, kagaroo, dolphi, elephat, jaerwoky, hairy log-horned
toad eetle
As children age, they speak more fluently and hence can store more in STM.
The limit of STM is whatever can be rehearsed in two seconds (often 7 +/- 2
items.)
Chukig ad h it orks.
By chunking information into larger units, we can rehearse it more efficiently.
For istae…
Increases the capacity of your short term memory
sbtdu iho ste gan
ess/ee/tee/dee/you eye/haith/oh ess/tee/ee gee/ay/e
Susan bit the dog
“usa it the dog
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Document Summary

Without your memory, are you still you: to a large extent, it is your memory that tells you who you are. Perli(cid:374)g(cid:859)s (cid:862)partial eport(cid:863) (cid:272)o(cid:374)ditio(cid:374): a post-image cue signalled which row ps should report, participants could report about 3 items from that row, the sensory register contains all the items, but we can only fit some into. Short-term memory: the mental workspace: we select some information from sensory memory to pay attention to. That information is then transformed in stm from an unanalyzed form into a meaningful representation. In sensory memory, all that is present is raw information. It needs to be processed to be meaningful. Working memory: stm is closely related to the concept of (cid:858)(cid:449)orki(cid:374)g (cid:373)e(cid:373)or(cid:455)(cid:859), (cid:271)e(cid:272)ause it is i(cid:374) tm that work is done to transform the unprocessed information in the sensory store into meaningful information. Information in stm needs to be mentally rehearsed, otherwise it rapidly disappears.

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