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Lecture 3

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Ryerson University
PSY 302
Lili Ma

PSY302 Lecture 3 Sept. 17, 2013 Session 1: Newborn Period Overview * Birth complications * Newborn period Birth Complications Gestation Age - 1st day of the last menstrual period to conception • is nearly 2 weeks difference from actual day of conception • Extremely preterm < 28 weeks • Preterm 28-33 weeks • Late preterm 34-36 weeks - mostly OK, minor complications • Full term 37-42 weeks • Post term > 42 weeks - need to induce or C section Preterm • Chance of survival increases with age (from 24 weeks) • 22 weeks = 9% survival (100% impaired) (decide whether to keep baby or not) • 24 weeks = 60% survival - need Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NCIU) o extremely uncomfortable for the baby (aggressive and painful) o isolette - box o that mimics conditions of the uterus - low light, low nose, warm o baby stays until they reach healthy weight or healthy condition LBW Infants • weigh less than 5.5 pounds (2,500 grams) • Preterm or Small for Gestation Age (SGA) o suffer from the same complications • More medical complications & developmental difficulties o But, the majority of LBW babies turn out quite well. o Early intervention is KEY - massage (most effective) 2 • Intervention: Extensive parent contact and more touch for infants in NICU o Massaged babies gained 47% more weight than those who were not o stimulates growth hormones • Eg. Rat parents that lick their babies (masage) gained weight significantly faster (showed a stimulates chemical release of growth hormone) vs. rats that were seperated from parents • smallest newborn to survive - 27 weeks of gestation, 9.9 ounces, 1989 Newborn Reflexes • Reflex: Involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus • Some are clearly adaptive (e.g., survival reflexes) • Some may not appear adaptive (e.g., primitive reflexes) o Consequence of neural development o May be used to screen for neurological impairments o Eg. preterm babies that have little/weak primitive reflexes = problems with neural development Survival Reflexes • Breathing reflex: repetitive inhalation and expiration • Rooting reflex: turning the head in the direction of a touch on the cheek • Sucking reflex: sucking on objects placed into the mouth • Swallowing reflex • Eye-blink reflex: closing or blinking the eyes PSYSept. 17, 2013 • Pupillary reflex: constriction of pupils to bright light and dilation to dark or dim light Primitive Reflexes • Babinski reflex: fanning and then curling the toes (disappears at 8 mos. to 1 year) • Palmar grasping reflex: curling the fingers around objects that touch the baby’s palm (first 3-4 mos.) • Moro reflex: throw out arms and arch the back, and then bring the arms toward each other as if to hold onto something (4-6 mos.) • Swimming reflex: actively move the legs and arms and involuntarily hold breath when immersed in water (4-6 mos.) • Stepping reflex: when being held upright on a flat surface, the baby will step as if to walk (8 weeks) Newborn States (from most to least) cryingr Sleep (70%) --> irregular sleep --> drowsiness --> alert inactivity --> alert activity --> Newborn States: Sleep • Sleep twice as much as young adults • REM (rapid eye movement) sleep o At least 50% of newborn sleep o only 25-30% of 5-month-old sleep • Why so much REM sleep in the fetus and newborn? o learning (info is processed during REM) o autostimulation theory - because vision in the fetus is least stimulated, so REM will stimulate visual development 4 To Sum Up… * Some common birth complications * Newborns are ready for life! Biology and Behavior Overview * Biology and behavior * Nature-nurture: Model of interaction * How to study the nature-nurture interactions? * Behavioral genetics Model of Interaction 3 key elements: • Genotype: genetic material inherited • Phenotype: expression of the gene thats observable (eg. body characteristics) • Environment Model of Interaction – 4 relationships Genotype Genotype/Child Phenotype Phenotype/Child Environment 1. Parents’ Genotype to Child’s Genotype PSYSept. 17, 2013 • Genetic material is passed on as chromosomes (made up of DNA) o Carry all the biochemical instructions • Genes: sections of chromosomes; the basic units of heredity o Genetic inheritance: 1/2 from Mom and 1/2 from Dad o Father's sperm + Mother's Egg = zygote (46 chromosomes) 2. Child’s Genotype --> Child’s Phenotype • A child will not express every characteristic in its genetic makeup. • But, few patterns are so simple… o Regulator genes control the activity of other genes, influence development only if turned on o Polygenic genes: most traits and behaviours involve several genes 3. Child’s Environment --> Child’s Phenotype • Genotypes are expressed differently in varying environments. • The range of reaction: o Genes set boundaries or limits for the range of phenotypes in varying environments. Exactly where an individual will fall within this range depends on his or her environment • Genetically predisposed + certain environment = expressedQ 4. Child’s Phenotype to Child’s Environment 6 • Least thought about but in fact very important. • Children actively select surroundings and experiments that fit one's genetic disposition • Different children interpret the same treatment from others differently o Eg. Halo Effect  Humans (adults & children alike) behave different toward more attractive ppl  even newborns prefer attractive  how may preference for attractive influence children's development? Nature-Nurture Interactions • The influence is bi-directional. • Transactional model = continuous interaction between nature and nurture • Direct vs. indirect effects o Eg. Fearful baby --> social withdrawal --> poor social adults • Most people get a “double whammy” (share both their genes & environment with parents)
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