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Lecture 3

Abnormal Psychology Lecture 3- Assessment

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PSY 606
Tara M Burke

Class #3: Assessment and Research in Psychological Disorders Contemporary Theories (Biological, Social, Psychological) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy - Developed out of behavioural theory - Emphasizes the role of info processing (e.g. perception, attention and memory) as well as attitudes, beliefs and interpretation of the world- Schemas/ past experiences which make the world more predictable Assumptions of CB Theory - Abnormal and normal behaviour are both learned - Psychopathology is associated with distorted thinking - Cognition affects behaviour (your thoughts on dogs effect how you behave towards them) - Cognition can be monitored, analyzed and altered - Changing your thoughts can lead to behaviour change (i.e. change the situation or the interpretation of the situation) *Thoughts Feelings/ Emotions Behaviours / actions * (are interchangeable) - Cognitive therapy helps individuals become more aware of their thoughts 10 Common Cognitive Disorders - All or nothing thinking: No middle ground - Over generalization: extend from one person/ situation, to a larger scale generalization - Mental Filter - Disqualifying the Positive: focus on the negatives - Jumping to Conclusions (fortune telling) - Magnification (catastrophizing) or minimization - Emotional Reasoning - Labeling and mislabeling - Personalization - Should Statements (should is associated with guilt) 3 main goals of Cognitive therapy 1) Identify/ increase awareness of thoughts (pattern of thinking) 2) Change the (dysfunctional) thought pattern 3) Behavioural exposure (to change thoughts people need to change their thoughts to alter their behaviours Social Learning Theory - You can observe behaviour and still learn from it without being involved in it - Developed out of behavioural theory - Reinforcing is not always necessary for learning to occur - Social modeling and observational learning can also lead to acquisition and change of maladaptive behaviour - Modeling impact of bullying can lead to spreading the behaviour Central Role of Emotion Regulation - Emotions are central to most contemporary theories - Increased emphasis on emotion regulation (being aware of your emotions and adjusting them accordingly to different situations) - 2 Examples: Attachment Mindfulness Attachment Based Interventions What is attachment security? - Affective bond or tie between and infant and his/her primary caregiver that develops within first year of life - Attachment is about emotion regulation, activated when a child is: Emotionally upset Physically hurt Ill (regulation of negative emotions) Attachment - Secure - Avoidance - Resistance - Disorganized Mindfulness Interventions 1. Observing ones experience without judgment 2. Describe experience 3. Acting with awareness 4. Non-judgment of inner experience 5. Non-reactivity to inner experience Scientific Method 1. Defining a problem 2. Specifying hypothesis 3. Choosing and implementing a research method 4. Analyzing data, drawing appropriate conclusions, and communicating the findings Types of Validity ­ Face- Test measures what it is supposed to measure ­ Content- Test assesses all important aspects of phenomenon ­ Concurrent- Test yields results similar to other measures that measure the same construct ­ Predictive- Test predicts the behaviour, thoughts or feelings it is supposed to measure/ predict ­ Construct- Test measures what it is supposed to measure and not something else Types of Reliability* On test! ­ Test-retest: Test produces similar results when given at two points in time ­ Alternate form: Two versions of the same test produce similar results ­ Internal: Different parts of the same test produce similar results ­ Inter-rater: Two or more raters or judges who administer a test to an individual and score it come to similar conclusions Assessment of Psychological Disorders ­ Assessment: process gathering info about an individuals symptoms and factors that may aid in the development/ maintenance of the symptoms ­ Diagnosis: (may or
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