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Lecture #12 - Gender Inequality.docx

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SOC 103
Kelly Train

Lecture #12 – Gender Inequality August 8, 2012 1. The separation of the public and private spheres - Different from what we talked about when we talked about the public and private SECTOR for the state - Childbirth was one of the biggest killers of women until the 1950s - Everyone used to work from home, so even though men had higher statuses, the work of women was still recognized - The industrial revolution changed that - Men would go out and work while women would stay home, which meant that women’s work wasn’t recognized anymore - The public sphere is looked at as the place of work - Becomes the male sphere – because they are seeking out paid work – bread winner - The private sphere is looked at leisurely work, domestic work, and rendered invisible since you don’t get paid to do it – becomes women sphere - It is expected to happen and the only time it is recognized is when it doesn’t happen 2. Biological determinist theories of gender – Freud - Not only is your behaviour, but your role and norms are biologically determined 3. The first wave women’s movement 1890s-1920s - They were called Suffragettes – they were fighting for something called Suffrage – to vote - Famous five: o Nellie Mclung (leader of movement) o Emily Stowe (first female doctor) o Emily Murphy (first female appointed to a judgeship) o Agnes McPhail - All upper class, white, highly educated, protestant - 1927 – Emily Murphy fought for the Persons Case and won. She was appointed the judgeship but couldn’t accept it because women weren’t legally recognized as a person. Couldn’t hold property, wages were paid to your husband etc. They were recognized as persons in 1927. - These women were also called Social Reformers - They were maternal feminists – they argued that women in their traditional roles as wives and mothers knew what was best for their family and therefore deserved to vote - They weren’t feminists because they weren’t challenging their place in society or their traditional roles – rather they reinforced it - The reason that the movement ends in the 1920s is because women get the vote – in Canada, Britain, and USA - In 1914 the WW1 broke out – which meant that there were no men left in the country of certain age ranges – politicians were nervous because they didn’t know who was going to vote for them - So the Married Women’s vote was passed – the assumption was that women would write their men overseas to see who to vote for and follow their instructions - So when the war was over, it was silly to take the vote away from them as they had been voting for 4 years already - Women were granted the right to vote sometime between 1918 and 1922 4. Structural functionalist theories of gender – Parsons - Before we can get into this, you have to understand what was happening after the war and before 1950s - Single women have always worked outside the home for a wage, married women worked too but from the home – “piecework” - Married women didn’t work outside the home until WW2 (1939-1945) - All men from 18-35 are drafted outside of Canada - Factories needed workers - Every workplace had an onsite daycare free of charge - Rosie the Riveter – ads in magazines like Chatelaine – two page spread showing the similarities between house work and factory work - 1940s – 1950s – women who are frustrated because they’ve been asked to leave the workforce “go home and take care of your husband, he needs you and the job, not you” - Talcott Parsons – 1950s and 1960s – new sociologist / he was a structural functionalist – well known for his theories on the family - He argued that they family is made up of complimentary, but distinct roles – men could only do one of these roles, and women could only do one of these roles – and this was due to biological determinism – men were naturally the instrumental leadership role – and women had the expressive role - Men belonged in the public/paid work sphere 5. The second wave women’s movement 1970-1990 a. Liberal feminism - Son went to university to get a good job and become a professional - Daughter went to university for an education and to meet someone of the same status and social class to marry - Betty Friedan 1966 – the feminine mystique - Liberal feminists argued for very specific things: o Educational reforms  They would encourage you to become a nurse rather than a doctor o Legislative reforms o Resocialization  She was calling of resocialization of women, not men  She was saying that women shouldn’t take on women-dominated jobs but rather take courses that will lead to male-dominated jobs - Based on meritocracy – “I went to Harvard, I earned it, I should have one of those jobs” - She was fighting for middle and upper class women – nannies and babysitters didn’t “earn” it, because they didn’t go to university - The reason why liberal feminism didn’t work too well was because women were supposed to go to their male-dominated job during the day and then come home and fulfill their women roles – couldn’t do it all b. Radical feminism c. Socialist feminism - These two groups didn’t like each other – they fought for different things - For radical feminists: o Patriarchy was a system of male domination, power, and privilege o Granted men all these things while denying women access to all of these things, political and economical power o Not only was this a system of domination, but that it gave individual men rights over individual women o Their main problem was male violence vs. women o 1970s – response to what was happening at this time  1960s – sexual revolution (only for men) – 1969 birth control had been legalized – men felt that they had the entitlement to rape and sleep with anyone o There were no rape laws in place –fighting for this and as well as marital rape law o Abortion laws – Shulamith Firestone – referred to pregnancy as the ultimate imprisonment within your own body – test tube babies – having babies outside of the women’s bodies – all a response to what was happening at that time in terms of male response o Adrienne Rich – compulsory heterosexuality – looked at how women were forced into this to support themselves, because they couldn’t get access to a living wage unless they were married to a man o Anti-porn – looked like rape in the 70s – “no means yes”  Famous male porn stars at this time – Ron Jeremy and John Holmes (Boogeyman movies)  This taught men rape and violence against women – their slogan was “no means no” - For socialist feminists: o Had a very different focus o Women’s experiences are not all the same – they are shaped by gender as well as class – upper class and working class women do not have the same experiences o Individual men can’t help but dominate individual women because every structure in society is set up to enable and privilege men and deny a
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