BISC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Phloem, Sieve Tube Element, Casparian Strip

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Essential nutrient: an element/compound that 1) required for normal growth/reproduction and 2) required for a specific structure or metabolic function. O (o2/h2o): electron acceptor in cellular respiration. Obtained from soil (macronutrients): required in large amounts to synthesize 4 macromolecules. Obtained in soil (micronutrients): required in small amounts as a substance for cofactors in enzymes. Older plant in poor condition (lack of n/p/k/mg): nutrient deficiency. Carbohydrates: c (co2 in air) o (o2 in air) h (h2o in roots) Proteins: coh s (sulfate ion in roots) n (no3- in soil/symbolic relationship) Nucleic acids: cohn p (phosphate in soil) Occurs in root hairs (in zone of maturation) Ions/small and large molecules can pass cell wall freely. Root hairs have large amount of membrane proteins. Cations: against concentration/with electrical gradient (beats concentration gradient, so it goes into cell by a channel. 1) proton pumps establish electrochemical gradient (favours entry of cations and strong enough to overcome concentration gradient which opposes entry of cations)

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