BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Beta Sheet, Essential Amino Acid, High-Protein Diet

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LECTURE 6 PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS
Proteins
- Combo of 20 amino acids make up all proteins in nature
- 9 amino acids are essential
o Complete proteins: have all 9 essential amino acids
o Incomplete proteins: lack 1+ essential amino acid
- Each amino acid contains:
o Amino group
o Acid group
o Unique side chain
Animal Protein Sources
- Complete proteins
- Have B vit, iron, zinc, calcium
- Low in fibre
- Diets hi in high red, processed meat hi risk of heart disease
Plant Protein Sources
- Incomplete protein
- Contains some B vit, iron, zinc, calcium (less available)
- High in fibre, unsat. fats, phyotchemicals
- Diets hi in legumes and seeds lower risk of heart disease
Protein Structure
- Made of long chains aa folded into specific patterns
- aa have nitrogen
- aa linked together by peptide bonds form polypeptides
o All proteins polypeptides; not all polypeptides are proteins
o To be functional protein, need to fold into specific structure w/ 3 or 4 levels of
organization
- Shape of protein determines its function
Four Levels of Protein Structure
- Primary structure
o Polypeptide chain
- Secondary structure
o Hydrogen bonds help form 1) alpha-helices (swirly) and 2) beta pleated sheets
- Tertiary structure
o More folding occurs
- Quaternary structure
o Binding of 2+ polypeptide chains together
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