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Kin 110 - Chapter 10.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

KIN 110 – CHAPTER 10 – Water Soluble Vitamins T HE W ATER -SOLUBLE V ITAMINS :8B S AND 1C - Consists of 8 Vitamin Bs and 1 Vitamin C - B 6 B12 Thiamin (1 ), Riboflavi2 (B ), Nia3in (B ), Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Folate - Kidneys constantly remove excess Vitamin B by excretion, exce12 B - Susceptible to destruction by heat or alkalinity - Hydrophilic by nature, water will leech them from vegetables during cooking T HE BV ITAMINS - Vitamin B as coenzymes - Helps in vitamin energy-producing metabolic reactions T HIAMIN - Beriberi: Thiamin-deficiency disease, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration - Heat and alkaline (pH 8+) break the thiamin’s bonds - Functions: o Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP): A coenzyme where thiamin is a key component of it  TPP does Decarboxylation, removal of a carboxyl group (COOH) from a molecule, then is released as carbon dioxide  TPP is also a step in the citric acid cycle, and glycosis  TPP also plays a role in nerve function - Dietary Recommendations: o RDA for Adult Men: 1.2 milligrams o RDA for Adult Women: 1.1 milligrams o Pregnant Women: 1.4 milligrams o Lactating Women: 1.5 milligrams o Daily Value: 1.5 milligrams - Sources: o Pork o Legumes o Most from: Enrich or Whole Grain Products - Deficiency: o Deficiency occurs when there is heavy alcohol consumption with limited food consumption  Alcohol gives calories but no nutrients  Alcohol interferes with thiamin absorption o Poor and elderly at risk too, because of inadequate intake o Beriberi - Toxicity: o No Tolerable Upper Intake Level because kidneys rapidly excrete thiamin R IBOFLAVIN - Riboflavin accepts and donates electrons with ease, in many oxidation- reduction reactions - Light breaks riboflavin down - Resistant to acid, heat and oxidation - Functions: o Riboflavin is part of FMN and FAD, both participants in the metabolic pathways o Participation in reactions that remove ammonia during the deamination of amino acids - Dietary Recommendations: o RDA Women: 1.1 milligrams o RDA Men: 1.3 milligrams o Pregnant Women: 1.4 milligrams o Lactating Women: 1.6 milligrams - Sources: o Milk, milk drinks and yogurt o Organ meats - Deficiency: o Ariboflavinosis: Riboflavin deficiency o Glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue o Angular Stomatitis: Inflammation and cracking of the skin at the corners of the mouth o Cheilosis: Inflammation and cracking of the lips o Seborrheic Dermatitis: Disease of the oil-producing glands of the skin o Leads to vitamin B d6ficiency - Toxicity: o None, excretes excess riboflavin N IACIN - Name for two similar functioning compounds: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide - Little niacin is lost because niacin is stable when cooking it - Functions: o NAD and NADP o Carries electrons to form ATP (aerobic) o Carries electrons to form lactate (anaerobic) - Dietary Recommendations: o Body can actually make Niacin from tryptophan (60=1NE) o Intake recommendations expressed as: Niacin Equivalents o RDA Adult Men: 16 milligrams o RDA Adult Women: 14 milligrams o Pregnant Women: 18 milligrams o Lactation: 17 milligrams o Daily Value: 20 milligrams KIN 110 – CHAPTER 10 – Water Soluble Vitamins - Sources: o Meat, poultry, fish o Enriched and whole-grain breads and grains product o Mushroom, liver, seafood - Tryptophan  Niacin Equivalent Conversion o Riboflavin, Vitamin B 6 and iron affect the conversion from Tryptophan to Niacin o How much tryptophan is converted to Niacin: Excess Protein ÷ 6 = X mg niacin - Deficiency: o Pellagra: Severely roughened skin – 4 D’s Dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, death - Toxicity o Lowers LDL cholesterol, raises HDL cholesterol o Upper level tolerance is 35 milligrams per day P ANTOTHENIC ACID - Functions: o A component of coenzyme A (CoA) o Formed from pyruvate o Starts citric acid cycle o Key building block for fatty acids o Precursor of ketone bodies - Dietary Recommendations o Adequate Intake: 5 milligrams - Sources: o Chicken, beef o Potatoes, tomato o Oats - Deficiency: o Virtually nonexistent - Toxicity: o No adverse effects on high intakes B IOTIN - Bound free and bound to protein - When proteins digested, a biotin-lysine complex, biocytin is released - Functions: o Catalyze carboxylation o Synthesizing DNA - Dietary Recommendations o Adequate Intake 30 micrograms - Sources o Cauliflower o Liver o Peanuts o Cheese o Biotinidase: An enzyme in the small intestine that releases biotin from biocytin o Avidin: A protein in raw egg whites which prevent biotin’s absorption, is destroyed by heat - Deficiency: o Eating raw egg whites over a long period o Changes in blood pH that leads
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