BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Citric Acid Cycle, Pantothenic Acid, Dietary Reference Intake

20 views7 pages
Published on 19 Sep 2012
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course
BPK 110
Professor
Page:
of 7
KIN 110 CHAPTER 10 Water Soluble Vitamins
THE WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS: 8 BS AND 1 C
- Consists of 8 Vitamin Bs and 1 Vitamin C
- B6, B12, Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic Acid, Biotin,
Folate
- Kidneys constantly remove excess Vitamin B by excretion, except B12
- Susceptible to destruction by heat or alkalinity
- Hydrophilic by nature, water will leech them from vegetables during cooking
THE B VITAMINS
- Vitamin B as coenzymes
- Helps in vitamin energy-producing metabolic reactions
THIAMIN
- Beriberi: Thiamin-deficiency disease, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nerve
degeneration
- Heat and alkaline (pH 8+) break the thiamin’s bonds
- Functions:
o Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP): A coenzyme where thiamin is a key
component of it
TPP does Decarboxylation, removal of a carboxyl group
(COOH) from a molecule, then is released as carbon dioxide
TPP is also a step in the citric acid cycle, and glycosis
TPP also plays a role in nerve function
- Dietary Recommendations:
o RDA for Adult Men: 1.2 milligrams
o RDA for Adult Women: 1.1 milligrams
o Pregnant Women: 1.4 milligrams
o Lactating Women: 1.5 milligrams
o Daily Value: 1.5 milligrams
- Sources:
o Pork
o Legumes
o Most from: Enrich or Whole Grain Products
- Deficiency:
o Deficiency occurs when there is heavy alcohol consumption with
limited food consumption
Alcohol gives calories but no nutrients
Alcohol interferes with thiamin absorption
o Poor and elderly at risk too, because of inadequate intake
o Beriberi
- Toxicity:
o No Tolerable Upper Intake Level because kidneys rapidly excrete
thiamin
RIBOFLAVIN
- Riboflavin accepts and donates electrons with ease, in many oxidation-
reduction reactions
- Light breaks riboflavin down
- Resistant to acid, heat and oxidation
- Functions:
o Riboflavin is part of FMN and FAD, both participants in the metabolic
pathways
o Participation in reactions that remove ammonia during the
deamination of amino acids
- Dietary Recommendations:
o RDA Women: 1.1 milligrams
o RDA Men: 1.3 milligrams
o Pregnant Women: 1.4 milligrams
o Lactating Women: 1.6 milligrams
- Sources:
o Milk, milk drinks and yogurt
o Organ meats
- Deficiency:
o Ariboflavinosis: Riboflavin deficiency
o Glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue
o Angular Stomatitis: Inflammation and cracking of the skin at the
corners of the mouth
o Cheilosis: Inflammation and cracking of the lips
o Seborrheic Dermatitis: Disease of the oil-producing glands of the skin
o Leads to vitamin B6 deficiency
- Toxicity:
o None, excretes excess riboflavin
NIACIN
- Name for two similar functioning compounds: nicotinic acid and
nicotinamide
- Little niacin is lost because niacin is stable when cooking it
- Functions:
o NAD and NADP
o Carries electrons to form ATP (aerobic)
o Carries electrons to form lactate (anaerobic)
- Dietary Recommendations:
o Body can actually make Niacin from tryptophan (60=1NE)
o Intake recommendations expressed as: Niacin Equivalents
o RDA Adult Men: 16 milligrams
o RDA Adult Women: 14 milligrams
o Pregnant Women: 18 milligrams
o Lactation: 17 milligrams
o Daily Value: 20 milligrams
KIN 110 CHAPTER 10 Water Soluble Vitamins
- Sources:
o Meat, poultry, fish
o Enriched and whole-grain breads and grains product
o Mushroom, liver, seafood
- Tryptophan Niacin Equivalent Conversion
o Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and iron affect the conversion from
Tryptophan to Niacin
o How much tryptophan is converted to Niacin:
Excess Protein ÷ 6 = X mg niacin
- Deficiency:
o Pellagra: Severely roughened skin 4 D’s Dementia, diarrhea,
dermatitis, death
- Toxicity
o Lowers LDL cholesterol, raises HDL cholesterol
o Upper level tolerance is 35 milligrams per day
PANTOTHENIC ACID
- Functions:
o A component of coenzyme A (CoA)
o Formed from pyruvate
o Starts citric acid cycle
o Key building block for fatty acids
o Precursor of ketone bodies
- Dietary Recommendations
o Adequate Intake: 5 milligrams
- Sources:
o Chicken, beef
o Potatoes, tomato
o Oats
- Deficiency:
o Virtually nonexistent
- Toxicity:
o No adverse effects on high intakes
BIOTIN
- Bound free and bound to protein
- When proteins digested, a biotin-lysine complex, biocytin is released
- Functions:
o Catalyze carboxylation
o Synthesizing DNA
- Dietary Recommendations
o Adequate Intake 30 micrograms
- Sources
o Cauliflower
o Liver

Document Summary

The water-soluble vitamins: 8 bs and 1 c. Consists of 8 vitamin bs and 1 vitamin c. B6, b12, thiamin (b1), riboflavin (b2), niacin (b3), pantothenic acid, biotin, Kidneys constantly remove excess vitamin b by excretion, except b12. Susceptible to destruction by heat or alkalinity. Hydrophilic by nature, water will leech them from vegetables during cooking. Beriberi: thiamin-deficiency disease, muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration. Heat and alkaline (ph 8+) break the thiamin"s bonds. Functions: thiamin pyrophosphate (tpp): a coenzyme where thiamin is a key component of it. Tpp does decarboxylation, removal of a carboxyl group (cooh) from a molecule, then is released as carbon dioxide. Tpp is also a step in the citric acid cycle, and glycosis. Tpp also plays a role in nerve function. Dietary recommendations: rda for adult men: 1. 2 milligrams, rda for adult women: 1. 1 milligrams, pregnant women: 1. 4 milligrams, lactating women: 1. 5 milligrams, daily value: 1. 5 milligrams.