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BPK 140 Lecture Notes - Health Belief Model, Cardiovascular Disease, Occupational Safety And Health

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 140
Gibson Steve

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Week 1: Defining Health, Promoting Healthy Behaviour Change, and Evaluating Health
Study Questions:
1. What are the key characteristics of the medical model of health?
- health defined as the opposite of illness, absence of disease and/or disability
- when patient returns to “neutral” state, intervention is stopped
- doctor is viewed as all-knowing; patient is dependent on doctor
- focus on retroactive treatment
2. Compare and contrast the wellness model and the risk factor model of health.
- risk factor model: mortality (& morbidity?) rates linked to various risk factors, variables that are
associated with increased risk of developing a disease -> focus on proactive prevention
- wellness (holistic) model: combine both treatment and prevention from medical and risk factor models,
but also considers additional factors that affect health, such as social, mental, occupational, emotional ,
environmental, and spiritual health
3. Name and briefly describe the seven dimensions of health.
- physical health: body functioning, susceptibility to disease or disorders, also ability for daily functioning
(e.g. getting out of bed, off the toilet)
- social health: capacity for satisfying interpersonal relationships, interacting with others and adapting to
various social situations
- mental health: capacity to think clearly, reason objectively, analyze critically and use brain to effectively
meet challenges in life
- occupational health: satisfaction from one’s own career or stage of career development; as well, a
balance between work and leisure
- emotional health: ability to effectively and appropriately express emotions
- environmental health: appreciation of the external environment and one’s own role in preserving,
protecting and improving it
- spiritual health: health of “the deepest or innermost part of you”

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4. Many different factors influence health. Brainstorm a list. Now group each of these based on
the seven dimensions of wellness. Identify the ones that are within your control to change in order
to improve your health.
5. Define mortality, morbidity, and preventable years of life lost.
- mortality: death rate stats
- morbidity: illness rates
- life expectancy: number of years an individual is expected to live, calculated from a specific age (e.g.
- preventable years of life lost: life expectancy age at death = PYLL
6. Explain why cardiovascular disease accounts for a high percentage of premature deaths and a
low percentage of PYLL, while the opposite is true for accidents.
- consider that accidents is more preventable than cardiovascular disease, especially in premature deaths
- the PYLL calculated for those killed by accidents is considerably higher (life expectancy is higher) than
those who were killed by cardiovascular disease
7. What four supports are required for a successful health promotion program? Give practical
and specific examples of each one.
- educational supports: promote learning
- organizational supports: programs and services that encourage participation
- environmental supports: rules governing attitudes and behaviors and which also support decisions to
- financial supports: monetary incentives to motivate healthful decision making
8. Differentiate between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Give a specific example of
each type.
- primary prevention: measures made to prevent health problems from occurring (e.g. engaging in
regular physical activity)
- secondary prevention: early recognition of a health problem and intervention to eliminate or reduce it
before more serious illness occurs (e.g. modifying diet and physical activity levels in response to a blood-
cholesterol or blood-glucose test)
- tertiary prevention: treatment made after a person has become sick (misnomer, retroactive response)
9. Outline the health benefits to choosing healthy behaviours as listed by your text.
- reduce risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, major diseases; increase lifespan; improve quality of life;
greater energy levels; stronger immune system; improved self-confidence, self-concept, self-esteem, self-
efficacy; enhanced relationships due to better communications and “quality time” etc.
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