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Respiratory System Part 2

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 306
Mike Walsh

Respiratory System #2 I. ASLDFJK II. MECHANICS OF BREATHING A. Movement of Air Molecules 1. Conduction • Movement of air into and out of lungs is due to pressure diff betw alveolar air and atmosphere • Boyle’s Law: P1V1 = P2V2 a. Inspiration o Active muscular process o Diaphragm pulls connective tissue at top of bell downward to incr volume (superior-inferior direction) o External intercostal muscles incr lung volume in anterior- posterior direction a. Ribs originally slanted downward at rest. External intercostals project them more anterior. Sternum pushed 20% farther away from spine. Bucket handle effect b. Expiration o Passive muscular process at rest o Elastic forces return lung, thoracic cavity, and diaphragm to normal resting shape, and lower volume o During exercise, abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles enhance expiration a. Abdominal muscles pull thoracic cage down (anterior- posterior volume reduction), and push abdominal contents up (superior-inferior vol reduction) b. Internal intercostals reduce anterior-posterior distance 2. Diffusion • After bifurcation 17, air flow is slow due to large cross-sectional area of respiratory tree. Here, air molecules move faster by diffusion than by conduction B. Resistance to Air Flow • Poiseuille’s Law describes air flow: a. V = (d
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