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CRIM 101 (452)
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Public policy.docx

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Professor
Adrienne Peters
Semester
Fall

Description
Public policy & Crime Prevention November-23-12 -The "Get tough" approach  Assumes that offenders will be deterred by stiffer sentences and harsher terms of imprisonment  Little evidence in support of this -The US experience  US has three strikes rules, mandatory sentencing guidelines, and war on drugs  US has the highest per capita incarceration rates in the world (743 per 100000) - about six times the rate in Canada (117 per 100000)  Prison population in the US doubled between 1992 and 2007 * ~ 2.3 million in 2007  Death penalty * Thought to be the ultimate deterrent  34 states have the death penalty  2010: 46 executions * 44 lethal injection * 1 electrocution * 1 firing squad Race Executed Total population white 27 (57%) 75% black 13 (28%) 12% Latino/a 5 (11%) 12% native 1 (2%) 0.9%  US continues to have a much higher rate of violent crime than Canada  Any decline in the overall crime rate in the US has been mirrored in Canada -Hang 'em high  Louisiana in top five in the US for executions; second highest murder rate and fifth highest crime rate  Louisiana passed 1995 amendment authorizing death penalty for child rpae; no effect on reducing indictments for (or counts of) child rape. -Rational choice and deterrence  Rational choice theorists argue that would-be offenders weigh possible benefits of criminal activities against possible costs  Similar to Classical School of Criminology - certainty, celerity and severity of punishment would be sufficient deterrent for rational, free-willed individuals -Lock 'em up?  Arguments in favour of lengthier terms of imprisonment: * Incapacitate offender * Specific deterrence * General deterrence -But does it work?  Mandy chronic, serious offenders are substance abusers; lack work skills or education to contemplate alternatives  Some criminological theorists say that most criminals act impulsively, with limited consideration for long-term consequences -Cutting recidivism Study of 400 young offenders in Vancouver, serving mean sentences of 100-168 days   Previously served average of 33 months on probation  Recidivism rate still 81% within 12 months of release -Boot camps  Based on military model  Thought that these activities reduce impulsivity and increase positive attitudes towards society -Putting the boots to boot camps  2001 study comparing juvenile offenders in camps to those in traditional corrections found no significant difference in impulsivity or pro-social attitudes  2005 study of long-term arrest data found no difference between long-term recidivism rates for those who had been in boot camps and those in traditional corrections -Other approaches  Public health model, community policing, social development, and opportunity reduction  Attempt to address problem of crime by pre
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