Class Notes (834,034)
Canada (508,290)
Criminology (2,168)
CRIM 104 (315)

Social Learning Theory.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

The Chronological Progression: - 1) Sutherland’s differential association theory (1942) - 2) Skinner’s operant conditioning (1953) - 3) Sykes and Matza’s techniques of neutralization (1957) - 4) Burgess and Akers differential association-differentiation theory (1966) - 5) Akers’ social learning theory (1973) Differential Association: - Introduced by Edwin Sutherland - Was a professor at University of Chicago for five years - Rejected notion that crime was caused by “criminal type” or “psychopathology” - Said criminal behaviour was learned, and that it was the social context that contributed to criminal behaviour Nine Propositions of Differential Association: - Criminal behaviour is learned - Learned in a process of interaction with others - Principal part of learning occurs within intimate personal groups - Learning includes: o A) techniques of committing crime o B) motives, rationalizations, and attitudes - Learn definitions of legal codes as favorable or unfavorable - Become delinquent through excess of definitions favorable to criminal activity - Differential associations may differ in intensity, duration and frequency over time - Involves same mechanisms as other types of learning - Needs and values much the same for delinquents and non-delinquents Operant Conditioning: - B.F. Skinner set out principles of operant conditioning, operant behaviour and operant extinction in 1953 book, Science and Human Behaviour - Made Skinner Box Why is it Called “Operant Conditioning”: - Behaviour has its “effects” by “operating” on environment or other people - Behaviour learned through operant reinforcement can be unlearned through combination of extinction and reinforcement of alternative behaviours - Behaviour learned through “law of effect” - Behaviours that bring about desirable effects (e.g., comfort, food, sex), likely to be repeated - Behaviours that bring about undesirable effects (e.g., loss, pain, etc) unlikely to be repeated - Law of effect reflects impact of reward and punishment What is it That They Learn: - Sykes and Matza begin 1957 article by acknowledging Sutherland’s statement that criminal behaviour is “learned in the process of interaction” - Tried to explain the part of the process that involved learning the rationalizations that go along with being a criminal Sykes and Matza: - Unlike Albert Cohen, Sykes and Matza argue that criminals know that what they are doing is wron
More Less

Related notes for CRIM 104

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.