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Lecture 3

Crim 104 Lecture 3 Contemporary versions of anomie.docx

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

Contemporary versions of anomie-strain theory  Term paper assignment : Main problems  Not reading through the requirements of the assignment  Not doing the required readings  Not reading the checklist at end of the term paper hand-out  Using g exact wording from the assignment as the title for the paper  No page numbers, and /or double sided pages  Even if ideas and/or information are paraphrased in your own words, you must acknowledge/cite the source Eg citing properly  When you are citing original works in text, you must cite the original author. (eg Eirkson, 1962, 2011, p.291)  -----------------------------------------Lecture starts----------------------------------------- -The functionalist approach  Anomie theories and subculture theories related to structural functionalism  Popular sociological perspective from late 1930s into 1960s  Functionalist approach draws parallel between the social order and organic life  Society seen as series of integrated parts, each working to ensure the continuation of the organism -Starting with Saint-Simon  Saint-Simon emphasized importance of moral order  One of first to view society as functional mechanism, greater than its component parts -And then came Auguste Comte  Invoked an organic analogy of society  Used terms like elements, organs and tissues to describe society -Even crime serves a function  Durkheim said a certain amount of crime was normal - found in all societies  Crime helped to define/shape collective consciousness  Crime and punishment maintained the society's fundamental values and preserved its moral order -Talcott Parsons  Started the concept of "structural functionalism"  Pre-eminent sociological paradigm during 1940s and 1950s  The Structure of Social Action (1937)  The Social System (1951) -Parson's 4 functional imperatives (things we must do to survive)  Adaption = society had to adapt to its environment to obtain certain resources necessary for its survival  Goal attainment = society had to define/prioritize its goals, and then strive to achieve them  Integration = society had to regulate/coordinate the inter-relationships of its subsystems. (Merton did this. Talked about integration etc)  Latency = society had t maintain conforming behaviour y resolving strains, and motivating individuals to conform -The four pats of the social system  Function was to maintain society (help it to survive) and to ensure well-being of its members  Family produces children, teaches them fundamental values (eg belief in merits of hard work, regard for property, respect for others  Schools provide basic knowledge and work skills, and re-enforce fundamental values  Religion supports basic values, provides spiritual avenue to cope with social and personal problems  Economy allows individuals to work, earn and spend -A happy balance  Society/social system strive for balance or stability, often referred to as equilibrium  Watch words are consensus and integrations. (if you see these kinds of words, probably social functionalism) -Merton's anomie and deviant behaviour  If society is functional, then why do we have problems like social unrest, drug addiction, drop-outs and crime?  Merton deliberately distanced himself from Freudian or psychological explanations  Merton used term "anomie" to describe dysfunction between (or malintegration of) culture and social structure (Legge & Messner 2010) -Merton's manifest and latent functions  Manifest Functions are those that society intends, and are often set out as formal institutional goals  A manifest (or intended) function of CJS system is to punish criminals so that they (and others) will obey the laws  Another manifest function of CJS is to rehabilitate providing its satisfied customers with a training ground for future criminal activity  Latent functions are those that society does not intend; they are usually informal, and may have undesirable outcomes  An unintended or latent function of CJS is providing its satisfied customers with a training ground for future criminal activity -The social context of subcultural theories  Emerged during the 1950s  Relative prosperity, compared to the Great Depression (the Dirty Thirties)  Relative peace and prosperity, compared to World War II, which lasted from 1939 until 1945 -Albert Cohen  Wrote Delinquent Boys: the Culture of the Gang in 1955  Cohen studied with Robert Merton at Harvard, and Edwin Sutherland Indiana -A logical connection  Connection to Merton's strain theory, and to Chicago School's concern with inner city slums, social disorganization and delinquent youth gangs  Connection to Sutherland's theory of differential association; Cohen saw his work as elaboration on some of unresolved issues regarding transmission of cultural values -Gang subcultures  Gang delinquency most prevalent amongst lower class males Nonutilitarian, malicious and negativistic behaviour   Short term hedonism (short term pleasure) often causing discomfort to others -Status frustration  Members of lower class unable to achieve social status, because they lacked the means  Would come to against middle class standards at school, and find they couldn't meet them -Reaction Formation  Cohen viewed delinquent behaviour as a type of reaction formation - a hostile reaction to an adverse environment (i.e, to status frustration)  Also viewed delinquency as a collective solution - the del
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