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Lecture 4

Lecture notes - week 4

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CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

THE CHICAGO SCHOOLAND SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY EARLIER THEORIES OF CRIME Located the source of crime within the individual: • The soul • The body • The mind • The genes Did not really look at influence of social environment SOCIAL CONTEXT OF THE CHICAGO SCHOOL (***midterm) • Cities grew at rapid rate during later half of 1800s • 1790-1890: Urban population increased 139 times • Chicago: 4,100 residents in 1833; one million in 1890; two million in 1910 FROM SPUZZUM TO HOME SWEET HOME SOCIAL CONTEXT OF THE CHICAGO SCHOOL cont. • City grew through successive waves of immigrants • Also grew through displaced farm workers & Blacks moving from rural South • Laborers putting in 12 hour days, 6 days a week • Low wages, living in slums THE FICTIONAL CHICAGO THE “REAL” CHICAGO THE PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT • Emerged in the early 1900s. • Rejected Social Darwinism’s notion that “the poor” were biologically inferior • Claimed that people were poor because of social environment • Criticized the human costs of unbridled economic growth • Argued that “The American Dream” did not reach slums and ghettos • Believed that social reform was answer • Believed that the government could be trusted to carry it out THE CHICAGO SCHOOL THE CHICAGO SCHOOL cont. • Sociology Department at University of Chicago was first one in US (1892) • Chicago School gave rise to:  Thomas and Znaniecki’s social disorganization theory  Cooley, Thomas and Mead’s symbolic interactionism  Park & Burgess’ differential association theory  Becker’s labeling theory  Akers’ social learning theory THE “ECOLOGICAL SCHOOL” • Chicago School also referred to as The Ecological School, because of its “ecological” studies • Chicago School saw city as natural human environment, or as microcosm of humanity • emphasized the study of humans in their natural social environment – i.e., the city • Emphasized importance of “life histories” or ethnographies” – observing people in their natural habitat, listening to their own stories PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE THE WEB OF LIFE • Symbiosis = mutual interdependence, necessary for organisms to survive in particular environment • Also have invasion, dominance and succession (balance of nature changes) THE POLISH PEASANT IN EUROPE AND AMERICA • Title of 1920 book by W.I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki • W. I. Thomas did Ph.D at University of Chicago, taught sociology at University of Chicago for many years • Florian Znaniecki (from Poland), founded Polish Sociological Institute after WW1, later became President of American Sociological Society (Lemert, 1993, pp. 267-268) THE POLISH PEASANT IN EUROPE AND AMERICA-Chapter 3 • Thomas and Znaniecki examined letters, diaries and personal documents of Polish peasants who had immigrated to large American cities (Deutschmann, 2002, p.219) • Delved into clash between Old World customs and realities of crowded urban centers • Concluded that social disorganization happens in all societies during periods of rapid social change, especially when combined with mass migration (Traub & Little, 1985, p.42) THE HOBO: THE SOCIOLOGY OF THE HOMELESS MAN • Title of 1923 ethnography by Nels Anderson • Collected life histories of 60 hobos who were living in Chicago • also touched on social disorganization – hobos were impoverished migrant workers, travelling around in search of temporary, seasonal employment THE JACK ROLLER • Title of 1930 book by Clifford Shaw • Life history of one delinquent - Stanley • Recounted Stanley’s brushes with the law, behavioral problems, criminal convictions PARK AND BURGESS • One of earliest “members” of the Chicago School was Robert Park, a sociologist who concluded that Chicago was patterned, instead of organized randomly • Robert Park and Ernest Burgess dev
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