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Easc Earthquakes II.docx

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Earth Sciences
EASC 104
Jeffrey Zurek

Magmatism & Volcanism Slide 1 Magma: *know intrusive and plutonic Slide 2 Magma consists of liquid (melt), solid (crystals), and volatiles (gases that are typically dissolved in the melt of the magma, water carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide) Terms Viscosity: a liquid's/fluid's resistance to flow if the liquid has low viscosity, it will be able to flow easily -Idea that magma rises/falls due to buoyancy -Stratavolcano: made up of layers (strata) island Arc: ocean-ocean collision Cascades: examples of volcanic arc ocean-continent collision *Must know Rhyolite, Basalt, and Andesite Rhyolite (Felsic): most silica, most explosive (explosivity), most gas (volatile), most viscosity Andesite (Intermediate): explosive, gas, viscosity Basalt (Mafic): lowest silica, least explosive (effusive), least gas (volatile), least viscosity Granite: cool inside Rhyolite?: cool outside Slide 3 Magma Formation: -pressure is also increasing as you go down=increasing melting temperature -must reduce melting temperature or increase the heat Slide 4 Temperature: -Water acts as a catalyst to induce melting for volatiles for rocks to melt faster Pressure: -Most volcanoes happen around pacific ring of fire Slide 6 Intraplate Magmatism: Volcanoes in the middle of nowhere and not near plate boundary associated with plumes of heat in the mantle -especially when these occur in oceanic plates, they form basaltic magma; melting mantle not the continental crust -balsaltic magma: hawaii, easter island, canary islands -hotspot volcanoes: yellowstone (felsic) Slide 8 Magma Composition: -process of melt crystallizing and l
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