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Geog162 Chapter 5 Ontario.docx

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GEOG 162
Michele Wiens

Chapter 5 Ontario Shield vs. Lowland These two areas of Ontario are distinguishable by -landforms -population distribution in north west Ontario and south west Ontario -economic activity Landforms Shield (northern Ontario)-rocky plateau, lakes, muskeg, hard to travel across, cold in winter, warm short summer Lowlands (southern Ontario)-about 1/6 the size of northern Ontario; fertile soils, favourable climate; south west tip extends farther south than any other part of Canada; has glacial features such as moraines, drumlins Population Distribution In 3 south urban clusters Golden Horseshoe-west end of Lake Ontario Ottawa Valley-Ottawa/Gatineau South west Ontario-Cambridge, Kitchener, London, Waterloo In the north-fewer and smaller cities (Sudbury and Thunder Bay are 2 major cities) Economic Activity North-minerals, wood (resource towns), hydro, tourism South-highly industrialized, auto-manufacturing, agriculture Ontario-heartland of Canada (The core-periphery relationship) -vast, diversified, richly endowed province -produces 41.4% of Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (estimate of the total value of all materials, food-stuffs, goods, services produced by a country or province in a year) -has over 11 million people (38% of Canada’s population) -has favourable physical characteristics (soil, climate), has an advantage over hinterland regions for supporting agriculture -average personal income is well above national average -has a large political voice; concentration of political power Ontario-heartland North America -ultra modern infrastructure (land, water, air, community links, strategic rail corridors, major ports along the St Lawrence, airports) -leads in communication and biotechnologies (lots of research and development) -has supported sustained economic growth for more than 4 decades -close to huge US market, its largest trading partner -rich in natural resources; it accounts for 30% of Canada’s mineral output and 20% of forest products -it leads the nation in agriculture and food production -diversified industrial base (automobiles and parts, plastics, steel, chemicals, aerospace, food processing, computer software) Division of Power in Canada Provincial Jurisdiction -education, health and welfare, highways, civil law (property and civil rights), local government, and natural resources Federal Jurisdiction -wider mandate includes defense and external affairs, criminal law, money and banking, trade, transportation, citizenship, and Indian affairs Joint-agriculture Territorial-governments are assigned powers from Ottawa rd First Nations-self government; 3 level between provincial and municipal Political Power in Central Canada Tension arises between federal and provincial government
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