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GEOG 162 Lecture Notes - Lake Ontario, Gross Domestic Product, Muskeg

Course Code
GEOG 162
Michele Wiens

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Chapter 5 Ontario
Shield vs. Lowland
These two areas of Ontario are distinguishable by
-population distribution in north west Ontario and south west Ontario
-economic activity
Shield (northern Ontario)-rocky plateau, lakes, muskeg, hard to travel across, cold in winter,
warm short summer
Lowlands (southern Ontario)-about 1/6 the size of northern Ontario; fertile soils, favourable
climate; south west tip extends farther south than any other part of Canada; has glacial
features such as moraines, drumlins
Population Distribution
In 3 south urban clusters
Golden Horseshoe-west end of Lake Ontario
Ottawa Valley-Ottawa/Gatineau
South west Ontario-Cambridge, Kitchener, London, Waterloo
In the north-fewer and smaller cities (Sudbury and Thunder Bay are 2 major cities)
Economic Activity
North-minerals, wood (resource towns), hydro, tourism
South-highly industrialized, auto-manufacturing, agriculture
Ontario-heartland of Canada (The core-periphery relationship)
-vast, diversified, richly endowed province
-produces 41.4% of Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (estimate of the total value of all
materials, food-stuffs, goods, services produced by a country or province in a year)
-has over 11 million people (38% of Canada’s population)
-has favourable physical characteristics (soil, climate), has an advantage over hinterland regions
for supporting agriculture
-average personal income is well above national average
-has a large political voice; concentration of political power
Ontario-heartland North America
-ultra modern infrastructure (land, water, air, community links, strategic rail corridors, major
ports along the St Lawrence, airports)
-leads in communication and biotechnologies (lots of research and development)
-has supported sustained economic growth for more than 4 decades
-close to huge US market, its largest trading partner
-rich in natural resources; it accounts for 30% of Canada’s mineral output and 20% of forest
-it leads the nation in agriculture and food production
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