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Lecture 5

HIST 130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Zheng He, Axial Age


Department
History
Course Code
HIST 130
Professor
Luke Clossey
Lecture
5

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Why not China? (rise of capitalism)
1) Material: When rich people had too much money, they invested it in land (because few
alternatives)
2) Mental: Goes back to Axial Age: according to Confucius, merchants are parasites
3) “Real”: Chinese economy is strongest (no need for intensive economic growth, no need
to mess with the system)
Globalization
- People building global trade networks are European, which is surprising because China
was doing more in this aspect
- Zheng He was a Chinese captain going on journeys/expedition to Africa etc through
Indian Ocean (to show power etc)
- Europe is growing “smaller”
- in 1453 Constantinople
- Ships are not going far, they’re “coast hugging”
- Muslims in Southern Spain
- Bishops of Beijing (after G-Boom #3 in 14th, the Church would send Bishops
there to expand their religion)
- In 15th, ships of Europe started sailing further
- 1492 was important year
- Columbus expedition
- Reconquista (re-conquest, throwing muslims out of Spain)
- 1497: Cabot went to Newfoundland
- 1498: daGama went to India
- 1522: circumnavigation of the world
- In Melaka, Panglima Awang started
- Went to Europe, met Magellan
- The two sailed back to Melaka
- 1770s: Captain Cook sailed across the Pacific Ocean
Pointers
1) National loyalties grew weak
a) Columbus, Cabot were from different countries, but sailed for other countries
b) Sense of national belonging was not as strong
2) Ortelius created an atlas called “Theatrum Orbis Terrarum” (Theatre of Globe of Land) in
1570, named the first modern Atlas
3) June 24, 1571: Globalization began

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a) Manila founded → was a node between Eurasia and the Americas etc in terms of
transportation → connected the world
4) Convergence of bi-metallic ratio
a) Ratio of value of gold and silver to each other
b) In 1600ish in Spain, 1 gold == 13 silver
c) In 1600ish in China, 1 gold == 5 silver
d) This was because in Spain, there were huge quantities of silver since they had
conquered the Americas whereas China doesn’t have as much silver but they
required taxes to be paid in silver
e) In 1650ish in Spain + China + everywhere, 1 gold == 7 silver
5) Global trading companies
a) British East India Company, Dutch East India Company
b) Buy from the cheapest place, transport material, process wherever is cheapest,
then sell
6) Columbian & Magellan Exchanges
a) Trading of animals, food etc between Americas and Eurasia-Africa
b) Things brought to each:
Americas
Afro-Eurasia
Horses
Potato
Cattle
Tomatoes
Oranges
Cocoa
Bananas
Disease
Coffee
Global Economy
Balance of Trade
- Deficit (bad) + Surplus (good - things that people want)
In Atlantic:
- W Europe → Guns to Africa
- Africa → Slaves to Americas
- Americas → Silver to W Europe
- Triangle formed
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